A brief history of drugs

This is a history of drug use/prohibition based on the Appendix of Ceremonial Chemistry by Thomas Szasz. The book is published by "Doubleday/Anchor" Garden City, New York, 1975. Several items of interest have been added and some irrelevant items were deleted (Szasz documents the parallel course of relgious history). All unattributed items (no footnote) are from the book.

Note how many times governments have banned various drugs. At one time tobacco was illegal in more than a dozen states! Fat lot of good it did.


c. 5000 B.C.	The Sumerians use opium, suggested by the fact that
		they have an ideogram for it which has been translated
		as HUL, meaning "joy" or "rejoicing."  [Alfred R. Lindensmith,
		*Addiction and Opiates.* p. 207]

c. 3500 B.C. 	Earlist historical record of the production of alcohol:
		the description of a brewery in an an Egyptian papyrus.
		[Joel Fort, *The Pleasure Seekers*, p. 14]

c. 3000 B.C. 	Approximate date of the supposed origin of the use of
		tea in China.

c. 2500 B.C.	Earlist historical evidence of the eating of poppy seeds
		among the Lake Dwellers on Switzerland. [Ashley Montagu,
		The long search for euphoria, *Refelections*, 1:62-69
		(May-June), 1966; p. 66]

c. 2000 B.C.	Earliest record of prohibitionist teaching, by an
		Egyptian priest, who writes to his pupil: "I, thy
		superior, forbid thee to go to the taverns. Thou
		art degraded like beasts." [W.F. Crafts *et al*.,
		*Intoxicating Drinks and Drugs*, p. 5]

c. 350 B.C.	Proverbs, 31:6-7:  "Give strong drink to him
		who is perishing, and wine to those in bitter distress;
		let them drink and forget their poverty, and remember
		their misery no more." 

c. 300 B.C.	Theophrastus (371-287 B.C.), Greek naturalist and philosopher,
		records what has remained as the earlies undisputed
		reference to the use of poppy juice. 

c. 250 B.C.	Psalms, 104:14-15:  "Thou dost cause grass to grow for the
		cattle and plants for man to cultivate, that he may
		bring forth food from the earth, and wine to gladden
		the heart of man.

350 A.D.	Earliest mention of tea, in a Chinese dictionary.

4th century	St. John Chrysostom (345-407), Bishop of Constantinople:
		"I hear man cry, 'Would there be no wine! O folly! O
		madness!'  Is it wine that causes this abuse?  No, for
		if you say, 'Would there were no light!' because of
		the informers, and would there were no women because
		of adultery." [Quoted in Berton Roueche, *The Neutral
		Spirit*, pp. 150-151]

c. 450		Babylonian Talmud: "Wine is at the head of all medicines;
		where wine is lacking, drugs are necessary." [Quoted in
		Burton Stevenson (Ed.), *The Macmillan Book of Proverbs*,
		p. 21]

c. 1000		Opium is widely used in China and the far East. [Alfred
		A. Lindensmith, *The Addict and the Law*, p. 194]

1493		The use of tobacco is introduced into Europe by
		Columbus and his crew returning from America. 
		
c. 1500		According to J.D. Rolleston, a British medical
		historian, a medieval Russian cure for drunkenness
		consisted in "taking a piece of pork, putting it 
		secretly in a Jew's bed for nine days, and then giving
		it to the drunkard in a pulverized form, who will turn
		away from drinking as a Jew would from pork." [Quoted in
		Roueche, op. cit. p. 144]

c. 1525		Paracelsus (1490-1541) introduces laudanum, or tincture
		of opium, into the practice of medicine.

1600		Shakespeare: "Falstaff. . . . If I had a thousand sons
		the / first human principle I would teach them should /
		be,  to foreswear thin portion and to addict themselves
		to sack."  ("Sack" is an obsolete term for "sweet wine"
		like sherry). [William Shakespeare, *Second Part of King
		Henry the Forth*, Act IV, Scene III, lines 133-136]

17th century	The prince of the petty state of Waldeck pays ten thalers
		to anyone who denounces a coffee drinker. [Griffith Edwards,
		Psychoactive substances, *The Listener*, March 23, 1972, 
		pp. 360-363; p.361]

17th century	In Russia, Czar Michael Federovitch executes anyone
		on whom tobacco is found.  "Czar Alexei Mikhailovitch
		rules that anyone caught with tobacco should be 
		tortured until he gave up the name of the supplier."
		[Ibid.]

1613		John Rolf, the husband of the Indian princess Pocahontas,
		sends the first shipment of Virginia tobacco from 
		Jamestown to England. 

c. 1650		The use of tobacco is prohibited in Bavaria, Saxony,
		and in Zurich, but the prohibitions are ineffective.
		Sultan Murad IV of the Ottoman Empire decrees the
		death penalty for smoking tobacco: "Whereever there
		Sultan went on his travels or on a military expedition
		his halting-places were always distinguished by a 
		terrible rise in executions.  Even on the battlefield
		he was fond of surprising men in the act of smoking,
		when he would punish them by beheading, hanging, quartering
		or crushing their hands and feed. . . . Nevertheless,
		in spite of all the horrors and persecution. . . the
		passion for smoking still persisted." [Edward M. Brecher
		et al., *Licit and Illicit Drugs*, p. 212]

1680		Thomas Syndenham (1625-80): "Among the remedies which it 
		has pleased the Almighty God to give to man to relieve his
		sufferings, none is so universal and efficacious as opium."
		[Quoted in Louis Goodman and Alfred Gilman, *The 
		Pharmacological Basis of Theraputics*, First Edition (1941),
		p. 186]

1690		The "Act for the Encouraging of the Distillation of Brandy
		and Spirits from Corn" is enacted in England. [Roueche, op.
		cit. p. 27]

1691		In Luneberg, Germany, the penalty for smoking (tobacco)
		is death.

1717		Liquor licenses in Middlesex (England) are granted only
		to those who "would take oaths of allegiance and of
		belief in the King's supremacy over the Church" [G.E.G. 
		Catlin, *Liquor Control*, p. 14]

1736		The Gin Act (England) is enacted with the avowed object 
		of making spirits "come so dear to the consumer that the 
		poor will not be able to launch into excessive use of them."
		This effort results in general lawbreaking and fails to
		halt the steady rise in the consumption of even legally
		produced and sold liquor. [Ibid., p. 15]

1745		The magistrates of one London division demanded that 
		"publicans and wine-merchants should swear that they
		anathematized the doctrine of Transubstantiation."
		[Ibid., p. 14]

1762		Thomas Dover, and English physician, introduces his
		prescription for a diaphoretic powder," which he
		recommends mainly for the treatment of gout.  Soon
		named "Dover's powder," this compound becomes the most
		widely used opium preparation during the next 150 years.

1785		Benjamin Rush publishes his *Inquiry into the Effects
		of Ardent Spirits on the Human Body and Mind*; in it,
		he calls the intemperate use of distilled spirits a				
		"disease," and estimates the annual rate of death
		due to alcoholism in the United States as "not less than
		4000 people" in a population then of less than 6 million.
		[Quoted in S. S. Rosenberg (Ed.), *Alcohol and Health*,
		p. 26]

1789		The first American temperance society is formed in Litchfield,
		Connecticut.  [Crafts et. al., op. cit., p. 9]

1790		Benjamin Rush persuades his associates at the Philadelphia
		College of Physicians to send an appeal to Congress to 
		"impose such heavy duties upon all distilled spirits as shall
		be effective to restrain their intemperate use in the country."
		[Quoted in ibid.]

1792		The first prohibitory laws against opium in China are
		promulgated.  The punishment decreed for keepers of opium
		shops is strangulation.

1792		The Whisky Rebellion, a protest by farmers in western
		Pennsylvania against a federal tax on liquor, breaks out
		and is put down by overwhelming force sent to the area
		by George Washington.  Samuel Taylor Coleridge writes
		"Kubla Khan" while under the influence of opium.

1800		Napoleon's army, returning from Egypt, introduces cannibis
		(hashish, marijuana) into France.  Avante-garde artists
		and writers in Paris develop their own cannabis ritual,	
		leading, in 1844, to the establishment of *Le Club
		de Haschischins.*  [William A. Emboden, Jr., Ritual
		Use of Cannabis Sativa L.: A historical-ethnographic
		survey, in Peter T. Furst (Ed.), *Flesh of the Gods*,
		pp. 214-236; pp. 227-228]

1801		On Jefferson's recommendation, the federal duty on liquor
		was abolished. [Catlin, op. cit., p. 113]

1804		Thomas Trotter, an Edinburgh physician, publishes *An Essay,
		Medical, Philosophical, and Chemical on Drunkenness and Its
		Effects on the Human Body*: "In medical language, I consider
		drunkenness, strictly speaking, to be a disease, produced by
		a remote cause, and giving birth to actions and movements
		in the living body that disorder the functions of health. . . 
		The habit of drunkenness is a disease of the mind." [Quoted
		in Roueche, op. cit. pp. 87-88]

1805		Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Serturner, a German chemist, isolates
		and describes morphine.

1822		Thomas De Quincey's *Confessions of an English Opium
		Eater* is published.  He notes that the opium habit,
		like any other habit, must be learned: "Making allowance
		for constitutional differences, I should say that *in
		less that 120 days* no habit of opium-eating could
		be formed strong enough to call for any extraordinary
		self-conquest in renouncing it, even suddenly renouncing
		it.  On Saturday you are an opium eater, on Sunday no longer
		such." [Thomas De Quincey, *Confessions of an English Opium
		Eater* (1822), p. 143]

1826		The American Society for the Promotion of Temperance is 
		founded in Boston.  By 1833, there are 6,000 local 
		Temperance societies, with more than one million members.

1839-42		The first Opium War.   The British force upon China the
		trade in opium, a trade the Chinese had declared illegal..
		[Montagu, op. cit. p. 67]

1840		Benjamin Parsons, and English clergyman, declares:
		". . . alcohol stands preeminent as a destroyer.
		. . . I never knew a person become insane who was not
		in the habit of taking a portion of alcohol every day."
		Parsons lists forty-two distinct diseases caused by
		alcohol, among them inflammation of the brain, scrofula,
		mania, dropsy, nephritis, and gout. [Quoted in Roueche,
		op. cit. pp. 87-88]

1841		Dr. Jacques Joseph Moreau uses hashish in treatment of mental
		patients at the Bicetre.


1842		Abraham Lincoln: "In my judgement, such of us as have never
		fallen victims, have been spared more from the absence of
		apatite, than from any mental or moral superiority over those
		who have.  Indeed, I believe, if we take habitual drunkards
		as a class, their heads and their hearts will bear an 
		advantageous comparison with those of any other class." 
		[Abraham Lincoln, Temperance address, in Roy P. Basler 
		(Ed.), *The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, Vol. 1,
		p. 258]

1844		Cocaine is isolated in its pure form.

1845		A law prohibiting the public sale of liquor is enacted
		in New York State.  It is repealed in 1847.  

1847		The American Medical Association is founded.

1852		Susan B. Anthony establishes the Women's State Temperance
		Society of New York, the first such society formed by and
		for women.  Many of the early feminists, such as Elizabeth
		Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and Abby Kelly, are also 
		ardent prohibitionists. [Andrew Sinclar, *Era of Excess*,
		p. 92]

1852		The American Pharmaceutical Association is founded.  The 
		Association's 1856 Constitution lists one of its goals
		as: "To as much as possible restrict the dispensing and sale
		of medicines to regularly educated druggests and apothecaries.
		[Quoted in David Musto, *The American Disease*, p. 258]

1856		The Second Opium War.  The British, with help from the French,
		extend their powers to distribute opium in China.

1862		Internal Revenue Act enacted imposing a license fee of twenty
		dollars on retail liquor dealers, and a tax of one dollar
		a barrel on beer and twenty cents a gallon on spirits. 
		[Sinclare, op. cit. p 152]

1864		Adolf von Baeyer, a twenty-nine-year-old assistant of 
		Friedrich August Kekule (the discoverer of the molecular
		structure of benzene) in Ghent, synthesizes barbituric acid,
		the first barbiturate.

1868		Dr. George Wood, a professor of the theory and practice 
		of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, president
		of the American Philosophical Society, and the author
		of a leading American test, *Treatise on Therapeutics*,
		describes the pharmacological effects of opium as follows:
		"A sensation of fullness is felt in the head, soon to be
		followed by a universal feeling of delicious ease and 
		comfort, with an elevation and expansion of the whole moral
		and intellectual nature, which is, I think, the most 
		characteristic of its effects. . . . It seems to make
		the individual, for the time, a better and greater man. . . .
		The hallucinations, the delirious imaginations of alcoholic
		intoxication, are, in general, quite wanting.  Along
		with this emotional and intellectual elevation, there is
		also increased muscular energy; and the capacity to act,
		and to bear fatigue, is greatly augmented. [Quoted in 
		Musto, op. cit. pp. 71-72]

1869		The Prohibition Party is formed.  Gerrit Smith, twice
		Abolitionist candidate for President, an associate
		of John Brown, and a crusading prohibitionist, declares:
		"Our involuntary slaves are set free, but our millions
		of voluntary slaves still clang their chains.  The lot of
		the literal slave, of him whom others have enslaved, is indeed
		a hard one; nevertheless, it is a paradise compared 
		with the lot of him who has enslaved himself to alcohol." 
		[Quoted in Sinclar, op. cit. pp. 83-84]

1874		The Woman's Christian Temperance Union is founded in Cleveland.
		In 1883, Frances Willard a leader of the W.C.T.U. forms the
		World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union.

1882		The law in the United States, and the world, making
		"temperance education" a part of the required course in 
		public schools is enacted.  In 1886, Congress makes such
		education mandatory in the District of Columbia, and in
		territorial, military, and naval schools.  By 1900, all the
		states have similar laws. [Crafts et. al., op. cit. p. 72]

1882		The Personal Liberty League of the United States is founded
		to oppose the increasing momentum of movements for 
		compulsory abstinence from alcohol. [Catlin, op. cit. p. 114]

1883		Dr. Theodor Aschenbrandt, a German army physician, secures
		a supply of pure cocaine from the pharmaceutical firm of 
		Merck, issues it to Bavarian soldiers during their 
		maneuvers, and reports on the beneficial effects of the 
		drug in increasing the soldiers' ability to endure fatigue.
		[Brecher et. al. op. cit. p. 272]

1884		Sigmund Freud treats his depression with cocaine, and reports
		feeling "exhilaration and lasting euphoria, which is in no
		way differs from the normal euphoria of the healthy person. . .
		You perceive an increase in self-control and possess more
		vitality and capacity for work. . . . In other words, you
		are simply more normal, and it is soon hard to believe that
		you are under the influence of a drug." [Quoted in Ernest
		Jones, *The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud, Vol. 1, p. 82]

1884		Laws are enacted to make anti-alcohol teaching compulsory
		in public schools in New York State.  The following year
		similar laws are passed in Pennsylvania, with other states
		soon following suit.

1885		The Report of the Royal Commission on Opium concludes that 
		opium is more like the Westerner's liquor than a substance
		to be feared and abhorred.  [Quoted in Musto, op. cit. p. 29]

1889		The John Hopkins Hospital, in Baltimore, Maryland, is opened.
		One of its world-famous founders, Dr. William Stewart Halsted,
		is a morphine addict.  He continues to use morphine in large
		doses throughout his phenomenally successful surgical career
		lasting until his death in 1922.

1894		The Report of the Indian Hemp Drug Comission, running to 
		over three thousand pages in seven volumes, is published.
		This inquiry, commissioned by the British government, 
		concluded: "There is no evidence of any weight regarding the
		mental and moral injuries from the moderate use of these
		drugs. .. . . Moderation does not lead to excess in hemp any
		more than it does in alcohol.   Regular, moderate use of ganja
		or bhang produces the same effects as moderate and regular
		doses of whiskey."  The commission's proposal to tax bhang
		is never put into effect, in part, perhaps, because one of
		the commissioners, an Indian, cautions that Moslem law and
		Hindu custom forbid "taxing anything that gives pleasure
		to the poor." [Quoted in Norman Taylor, The pleasant assassin:
		The story of marihuana, in David Solomon (Ed.) *The 
		Marijuana Papers*, pp. 31-47, p. 41]

1894		Norman Kerr, and English physician and president of the
		British Society for the study of Inebriety, declares: 
		"Drunkenness has generally been regarded as . . . a sin
		a vice, or a crime. . . [But] there is now a consensus of
		intelligent opinion that habitual and periodic drunkenness
		is often either a symptom or sequel of disease . . . . The 
		victim can no more resist [alcohol] than an man with ague
		can resist shivering. [Quoted in Roueche, op. cit., pp. 
		107-108]

1898		Diacetylmorphine (heroin) is synthesized in Germany.
		It is widely lauded as a "safe preparation free from
		addiction-forming properties."  [Montagu, op. cit. p. 68]

1900		In an address to the Ecumenical Missionary Conference, Rev.
		Wilbur F. Crafts declares: "No Christian celebration of the
		completion of nineteen Christian centuries has yet been 
		arranged.  Could there be a fitter one than the general 
		adoption, by separate and joint action of the great nations
		of the world, of the new policy of civilization, in which
		Great Britian is leading, the policy of prohibition for the
		native races, in the interest of commerce as well as 
		conscience, since the liquor traffic among child races, 
		even more manifestly than in civilized lands, injures all
		other trades by producing poverty, disease, and death.
		Our object, more profoundly viewed, is to create a more 
		favorable environment for the child races that civilized
		nations are essaying to civilize and Christianize." 
		[Quoted in Crafts, et. al., op. cit., p. 14]

1900		James R. L. Daly, writing in the *Boston Medical and Surgical
		Journal*, declares: "It [heroin] possesses many advantages
		over morphine. . . . It is not hypnotic; and there is no
		danger of acquiring the habit. . . ." [Quoted in Henry
		H. Lennard et. al. Methadone treatment (letters),
		*Science*, 179:1078-1079 (March 16), 1973; p. 1079]

1901		The Senate adopts a resolution, introduced by Henry Cabot
		Lodge, to forbid the sale by American traders of opium
		and alcohol "to aboriginal tribes and uncivilized races."
		Theses provisions are later extended to include "uncivilized
		elements in America itself and in its territories, such as
		Indians, Alaskans, the inhabitants of Hawaii, railroad workers,
		and immigrants at ports of entry." [Sinclar, op. cit. p. 33]

1902		The Committee on the Acquirement of the Drug Habit of the
		American Pharmaceutical Association declares: "If the
		Chinaman cannot get along without his 'dope,' we can get
		along without him." [Quoted in ibid, p. 17]

1902		George E. Petty, writing in the *Alabama Medical Journal*,
		observes: "Many articles have appeared in the medical 
		literature during the last two years lauding this new agent
		. . . .  When we consider the fact that heroin is a morphine
		derivative . . . it does not seem reasonable that such a 
		claim could be well founded.  It is strange that such a claim
		should mislead anyone or that there should be found among
		the members of our profession those who would reiterate 
		and accentuate it without first subjecting it to the most
		critical tests, but such is the fact." [Quoted in Lennard
		et. al., op. cit. p. 1079]

1903		The composition of Coca-Cola is changed, caffeine replacing
		the cocaine it contained until this time. {Musto, op. cit.
		p. 43]

1904		Charles Lyman, president of the International Reform Bureau,
		petitions the President of the United States "to induce 
		Great Britain to release China from the enforced opium 
		traffic. . . .We need not recall in detail that China
		prohibited the sale of opium except as a medicine, until 
		the sale was forced upon that country by Great Britian
		in the opium war of 1840." [Quoted in Crafts et al., op.
		cit. p. 230]

1905		Senator Henry W. Blair, in a letter to Rev. Wilbur F. 
		Crafts, Superintendent of the International Reform 
		Bureau: "The temperance movement must include all poisonous
		substances which create unnatural appetite, and international
		prohibition is the goal." [Quoted in ibid.]

1906		The first Pure Food and Drug Act becomes law; until its
		enactment, it was possible to buy, in stores or by mail order
		medicines containing morphine, cocaine, or heroin, and without
		their being so labeled.

1906		*Squibb's Materia Medical* lists heroin as "a remedy of much
		value . . . is is also used as a mild anodyne and as a
		substitute for morphine in combatting the morphine habit.
		[Quoted in Lennard et al., op. cit. p. 1079]

1909		The United States prohibits the importation of smoking
		opium.  [Lawrence Kolb, *Drug Addiction*, pp. 145-146]

1910		Dr. Hamilton Wright, considered by some the father of U.S.
		anti-narcotics laws, reports that American contractors give
		cocaine to their Negro employees to get more work out of
		them. [Musto, op. cit. p. 180]

1912		A writer in *Century* magazine proclaims: "The relation 
		of tobacco, especially in the form of cigarettes, and
		alcohol and opium is a very close one.  . . . Morphine is
		the legitimate consequence of alcohol, and alcohol is the
		legitimate consequence of tobacco.  Cigarettes, drink,
		opium, is the logical and regular series."  And a physician
		warns: "[There is] no energy more destructive of soul, mind,
		and body, or more subversive of good morals than the 
		cigarette.  The fight against the cigarette is a fight for
		civilization."  [Sinclar, op. cit., p. 180]

1912		The first international Opium Convention meets at the
		Hague, and recommends various measures for the international
		control of the trade in opium.  Supsequent Opium Conventions
		are held in 1913 and 1914.

1912		Phenobarbital is introduced into therapeutics under the trade
		name of Luminal.

1913		The Sixteenth Amendment, creating the legal authority for
		federal income tax, is enacted.  Between 1870 and 1915,
		the tax on liquor provides from one-half to two-thirds
		of the whole of the internal revenue of the United States,
		amounting, after the turn of the century, to about $200
		million annually.  The Sixteenth Amendment thus makes possible,
		just seven years later, the Eighteenth Amendment.

1914		Dr. Edward H Williams cites Dr. Christopher Kochs "Most 
		of the attack upon white women of the South are the 
		direct result of the cocaine crazed Negro brain." 
		Dr. Williams concluded that " . . Negro cocaine fiends
		are now a known Southern menace."
		[New York Times, Feb. 8, 1914]
		

1914		The Harrison Narcotic Act is enacted, controlling the
		sale of opium and opium derivatives, and cocaine.

1914		Congressman Richard P. Hobson of Alabama, urging a prohibition
		amendment to the Constitution, asserts: "Liquor will actually
		make a brute out of a Negro, causing him to commit unnatural
		crimes.  The effect is the same on the white man, though
		the white man being further evolved it takes longer time
		to reduce him to the same level." Negro leaders join
		the crusade against alcohol. [Ibid., p. 29]

1916		The *Pharmacopoeia of the United States* drops whiskey and
		brandy from its list of drugs.  Four years later, American
		physicians begin prescribing these "drugs" in quantities 
		never before prescribed by doctors.

1917		The president of the American Medical Association endorses
		national prohibition.  The House of Delegates of the 
		Association passes a resolution stating: "Resolved, The 
		American Medical Association opposes the use of alcohol 
		as a beverage; and be it further Resolved,  That the use
		of alcohol as a therapeutic agent should be discourages."
		By 1928, physicians make an estimated $40,000,000 annually
		by writing prescriptions for whiskey." [Ibid. p. 61]

1917		The American Medical Association passes a resolution declaring
		that "sexual continence is compatible with health and is 
		the best prevention of venereal infections," and one of 
		the methods for controlling syphilis is by controlling alcohol.
		Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels prohibits the practice
		of distributing contraceptives to sailors bound on shore 
		leave, and Congress passes laws setting up "dry and decent
		zones" around military camps.   "Many barkeepers are fined
		for selling liquor to men in uniform.   Only at Coney Island
		could soldiers and sailors change into the grateful anonymity
		of bathing suits and drink without molestation from patriotic
		passers-by." [Ibid. pp. 117-118]

1918		The Anti-Saloon League calls the "liquor traffic" "un-American,"
		pro-German, crime-producing, food-wasting, youth-corrupting,
		home-wrecking, [and] treasonable." [Quoted in ibid. p. 121]

1919		The Eighteenth (Prohibition) Amendment is added to the U.S.
		Constitution.   It is repealed in 1933.

1920		The U.S. Department of Agriculture publishes a pamphlet
		urging Americans to grow cannabis (marijuana) as a profitable
		undertaking. [David F. Musto, An historical perspective on
		legal and medical responses to substance abuse, *Villanova
		Law Review*, 18:808-817 (May), 1973; p. 816]

1920-1933	The use of alcohol is prohibited in the United States.
		In 1932 alone, approximately 45,000 persons receive jail
		sentences for alcohol offenses.  During the first eleven
		years of the Volstead Act, 17,971 persons are appointed
		to the Prohibition Bureau.   11,982 are terminated "without
		prejudice," and 1,604 are dismissed for bribery, extortion,
		theft, falsification of records, conspiracy, forgery, and 
		perjury.  [Fort, op. cit. p. 69]

1921		The U.S. Treasury Departmen issues regulations outlining
		the treatment of addiction permitted under the Harrison
		Act.  In Syracuse, New York, the narcotics clinic doctors
		report curing 90 per cent of their addicts. [Lindensmith,
		*The Addict and the Law*, p. 141]

1921		Thomas S. Blair, M.D., chief of the Bureau of Drug Control
		of the Pennsylvania Department of Health, publishes a paper
		in the *Journal of the American Medical Association* in which
		he characterizes the Indian peyote religion a "habit 
		indulgence in certain cactaceous plants," calls the belief
		system "superstition" and those who sell peyote "dope vendors,"
		and urges the passage of a bill in Congress that would prohibit
		the use of peyote among the Indian tribes of the Southwest.
		He concludes with this revealing plea for abolition: "The
		great difficulty in suppressing this habit among the Indians
		arises from the fact that the commercial interests involved
		in the peyote traffic are strongly entrenched, and they 
		exploit the Indian. . . . Added to this is the superstition
		of the Indian who believes in the Peyote Church.  As soon
		as an effort is made to suppress peyote, the cry is raised
		that it is unconstitutional to do so and is an invasion of
		religious liberty.  Suppose the Negros of the South had
		Cocaine Church!" [Thomas S. Blair, Habit indulgence in
		certain cactaceous plants among the Indians, *Journal
		of the American Medical Association*, 76:1033-1034 (April
		9), 1921; p. 1034]

1921		Cigarettes are illegal in fourteen states, and ninety-two
		anti-cigarette bills are pending in twenty-eight states.
		Young women are expelled from college for smoking cigarettes.
		[Brecher et al., op. cit. p. 492]

1921		The Council of the American Medical Association refuses
		to confirm the Associations 1917 Resolution on alcohol.
		In the first six months after the enactment of the Volstead
		Act, more than 15,000 physicians and 57,000 druggests and
		drug manufacturers apply for licenses to prescribe and sell
		liquor. [Sinclair, op. cit., p. 492]

1921		Alfred C. Prentice, M.D.  a member of the Committee on
		Narcotic Drugs of the American Medical Association, declares
		"Public opinion regarding the vice of drug addiction has
		been deliberately and consistently corrupted through 
		propaganda in both the medical and lay press. . . . The
		shallow pretense that drug addiction is a 'disease'. . . .
		has been asserted and urged in volumes of 'literature'
		by self-styled 'specialists.'"  [Alfred C Prentice, The
		Problem of the narcotic drug addict, *Journal of the
		American Medical Association*, 76:1551-1556; p. 1553]

1924		The manufacture of heroin is prohibited in the United
		States.

1925		Robert A. Schless: "I believe that most drug addiction today
		is due directly to the Harrison Anti-Narcotic Act, which
		forbids the sale of narcotics without a physician's 
		prescription. . . . Addicts who are broke act as *agent
		provocateurs* for the peddlers, being rewarded by gifts
		of heroin or credit for supplies.  The Harrison Act made
		the drug peddler, and the drug peddler makes drug addicts."
		[Robert A. Schless, The drug addict, *American Mercury*,
		4:196-199 (Feb.), 1925; p. 198]

1928		In a nationwide radio broadcast entitled "The Struggle
		of Mankind Against Its Deadlist Foe," celebrating the
		second annual Narcotic Education Week, Richmond P. Hobson,
		prohibition crusader and anti-narcotics propagandist,
		declares: "Suppose it were announced that there were more
		than a million lepers among our people.  Think what a shock
		the announcement would produce!  Yet drug addiction is far
		more incurable than leprosy, far more tragic to its victims,
		and is spreading like a moral and physical scourge. . . .
		Most of the daylight robberies, daring holdups, cruel murders
		and similar crimes of violence are now known to be committed
		chiefly by drug addicts, who constitute the primary cause
		of our alarming crime wave.   Drug addiction is more 
		communicable and less curable that leprosy. . . .
		Upon the issue hangs the perpetuation of civilization,
		the destiny of the world, and the future of the human
		race." [Quoted in Musto, *The American Disease*, p. 191]

1928		It is estimated that in Germany one out of every hundred
		physicians is a morphine addict, consuming 0.1 grams of
		the alkaloid or more per day. [Eric Hesse, *Narcotics and
		Drug Addiction*, p. 41]

1929		About one gallon of denatured industrial in ten is 
		diverted into bootleg liquor.  About forty Americans 
		per million die each year from drinking illegal alcohol, 
		mainly as a result of methyl (wood) alcohol poisoning. 
		[Sinclare, op. cit. p. 201]

1930		The Federal Bureau of Narcotics is formed.  Many of its 
		agents, including its first commissioner, Harry J. Anslinger,
		are former prohibition agents.

1935		The American Medical Association passes a resolution declaring
		that "alcoholics are valid patients." [Quoted in Neil Kessel
		and Henry Walton, *Alcoholism*, p. 21]

1936		The Pan-American Coffee Burreau is organized to promote
		coffee use in the U.S.   Between 1938 and 1941 coffee
		consumption increased 20%.   From 1914 to 1938 consumption
		had increased 20%. [Coffee, *Encyclopedia Britannica* (1949),
		Vol. 5, p. 975A]

1937		Shortly before the Marijuana Tax Act, Commissioner Harry
		J.  Anslinger writes: "How many murders, suicides, robberies,
		criminal assaults, hold-ups, burglaries, and deeds of 
		maniacal insanity it [marijuana] causes each year, especially
		among the young, can only be conjectured." [Quoted in 
		John Kaplan, *Marijuana*, p. 92]

1937		The Marijuana Tax Act is enacted.

1938		Since the enactment of the Harrison Act in 1914, 25,000
		physicians have been arraigned on narcotics charges, and
		3,000 have served penitentiary sentences. [Kolb, op. cit.
		p. 146]

1938		Dr. Albert Hoffman, a chemist at Sandoz Laboratories in 
		Basle, Switzerland, synthesizes LSD.  Five years later he
		inadvertently ingests a small amount of it, and observes and
		reports effects on himself.

1941		Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek orders the complete suppression
		of the poppy; laws are enacted providing the death penalty
		for anyone guilty of cultivating the poppy, manufacturing 
		opium, or offering it for sale. [Lindensmith, *The Addict
		and the Law*, 198]

1943		Colonel J.M. Phalen, editor of the *Military Surgeon*,
		declares in an editorial entitled "The Marijuana Bugaboo":
		"The smoking of the leaves, flowers, and seeds of Cannibis
		sativa is no more harmful than the smoking of tobacco. . . .
		It is hoped that no witch hunt will be instituted in the 
		military service over a problem that does not exist."
		[Quoted in ibid. p. 234]

1946		According to some estimates there are 40,000,000 opium smokers
		in China. [Hesse, op. cit. p. 24]


1949		Ludwig von Mises, leading modern free-market economist
		and social philosopher: "Opium and morphine are certainly
		dangerous, habit-forming drugs.  But once the principle
		is admitted that is the duty of government to protect
		the individual against his own foolishness, no serious
		objections can be advanced against further encroachments.
		A good case could be made out in favor of the prohibition
		of alcohol and nicotine.   And why limit the governments
		benevolent providence to the protection of the individual's
		body only?  Is is not the harm a man can inflect on his
		mind and soul even more disastrous than any bodily
		evils?  Why not prevent him from reading bad books and
		seeing bad plays, from looking at bad paintings and statues
		and listening to bad music?   The mischief done by bad
		ideologies, surely, is much more pernicious, both for
		the individual and for the whole society, than that 
		done by narcotic drugs." [Ludwig von Mises, *Human Action*,
		pp. 728-729]

1951		According to United Nations estimates, there are approximately
		200 million marijuana users in the world, the major places
		being India, Egypt, North Africa, Mexico, and the United 
		States. [Jock Young, *The Drug Takers*, p. 11]

1951		Twenty thousand pound of opium, three hundred pounds of
		heroin, and various opium-smoking devices are publicly
		burned in Canton China.  Thirty-seven opium addicts
		are executed in the southwest of China. [Margulies,
		China has no drug problem--why?  *Parade*, 0ct. 15 1972,
		p. 22]

1954		Four-fifths of the French people questioned about wine
		assert that wine is "good for one's health," and one quarter
		hold that it is "indispensable."  It is estimated that a
		third of the electorate in France receives all or part of
		its income from the production or sale of alcoholic 
		beverages; and that there is one outlet for every forty-
		five inhabitants. [Kessel and Walton, op. cit. pp. 45, 73]

1955		The Prasidium des Deutschen Arztetages declares: "Treatment
		of the drug addict should be effected in the closed sector
		of a psychiatric institution.  Ambulatory treatment is useless
		and in conflict, moreover, with principles of medical 
		ethics."  The view is quoted approvingly, as representative
		of the opinion of "most of the authors recommending 
		commitment to an institution," by the World Health
		Organization in 1962. [World Health Organization,
		*The Treatment of Drug Addicts*, p. 5]

1955		The Shah of Iran prohibits the cultivation and use of opium,
		used in the country for thousands of years; the prohibition
		creates a flourishing illicit market in opium.   In 1969
		the prohibition is lifted, opium growing is resumed under
		state inspection, and more than 110,000 persons receive 
		opium from physicians and pharmacies as "registered addicts."
		[Henry Kamm, They shoot opium smugglers in Iran, but . . ."
		*The New York Times Magazine*, Feb. 11, 1973, pp. 42-45]

1956		The Narcotics Control Act in enacted; it provides the death
		penalty, if recommended by the jury, for the sale of heroin
		to a person under eighteen by one over eighteen. [Lindesmith,
		*The Addict and the Law*, p. 26]

1958		Ten percent of the arable land in Italy is under viticulture;
		two million people earn their living wholly or partly from
		the production or sale of wine. [Kessel and Walton, op. cit.,
		p. 46]

1960		The United States report to the United Nations Commission on
		Narcotic Drugs for 1960 states: "There were 44,906 addicts
		in the United States on December 31, 1960 . . ." [Lindesmith,
		*The Addict and The Law*,  p. 100]

1961		The United Nations' "Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs
		of 10 March 1961" is ratified.  Among the obligations of 
		the signatory states are the following: "Art. 42. Know
		users of drugs and persons charges with an offense under
		this Law may be committed by an examining magistrate
		to a nursing home. . . . Rules shall be also laid down
		for the treatment in such nursing homes of unconvicted 
		drug addicts and dangerous alcoholics." [Charles Vaille, 
		A model law for the application of the Single Convention
		on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, *United Nations Bulletin on
		Narcotics*, 21:1-12 (April-June), 1961]

1963		Tobacco sales total $8.08 billion, of which $3.3 billion go
		to federal, state, and local taxes.  A news release from
		the tobacco industry proudly states: "Tobacco products
		pass across sales counters more frequently than anything
		else--except money." [Tobacco: After publicity surge
		Surgeon General's Report seems to have little enduring
		effect, *Science*, 145:1021-1022 (Sept. 4), 1964; p. 1021]

1964		The British Medical Association, in a Memorandum of Evidence
		to the Standing Medical Advisory Committee's Special Sub-
		committee on Alcoholism, declares: "We feel that in some very
		bad cases, compulsory detention in hospital offer the only
		hope of successful treatment. . . . We believe that some
		alcoholics would welcome compulsory removal and detention
		in hospital until treatment is completed." [Quoted in
		Kessel and Walton, op. cit. p. 126]

1964		An editorial in *The New York Times* calls attention
		to the fact that "the Government continues to be the tobacco
		industry's biggest booster.  The Department of Agriculture
		lost $16 million in supporting the price of tobacco in the
		last fiscal year, and stands to loose even more because it
		has just raised the subsidy that tobacco growers will get 
		on their 1964 crop.   At the same time, the Food for Peace
		program is getting rid of surplus stocks of tobacco abroad." 
		[Editorial, Bigger agricultural subsidies. . .even more for
		tobacco, *The New York Times*, Feb. 1, 1964, p. 22]

1966		Sen. Warren G. Magnuson makes public a program, sponsored by
		the Agriculture Department, to subsidize "attempts to increase
		cigarette consumption abroad. . . . The Department is paying
		to stimulate cigarette smoking in a travelogue for $210,000
		to subsidize cigarette commercials in Japan, Thailand, 
		and Austria." An Agriculture Department spokesman 
		corroborates that "the two programs were prepared under
		a congressional authorization to expand overseas markets
		for U.S. farm commodities." [Edwin B. Haakinsom, Senator
		shocked at U.S. try to hike cigarette use abroad, 
		*Syracuse Herald-American*, Jan. 9, 1966, p. 2]

1966		Congress enacts the "Narcotics Addict Rehabilitation Act,
		inaugurating a federal civil commitment program for addicts.
		

1966		C. W. Sandman, Jr. chairman of the New Jersey Narcotic Drug
		Study Commission, declares that LSD is "the greatest threat
		facing the country today . . .  more dangerous than the
		Vietnam War." [Quoted in Brecher et al., op. cit. p. 369]

1967		New York State's "Narcotics Addiction Control Program"
		goes into effect.   It is estimated to cost $400 million
		in three years, and is hailed by Government Rockefeller
		as the "start of an unending war . . ." Under the new
		law, judges are empowered to commit addicts for compulsory
		treatment for up to five years. [Murray Schumach, Plan for
		addicts will open today: Governor hails start, *The New
		York Times*, April 1, 1967]

1967		The tobacco industry in the United States spends an estimated
		$250 million on advertising smoking. [Editorial, It 
		depends on you, *Health News* (New York State), 45:1
		(March), 1968]

1968		The U.S. tobacco industry has gross sales of $8 billion.
		Americans smoke 544 billion cigarettes. [Fort, op. cit.
		p. 21]

1968		Canadians buy almost 3 billion aspirin tablets and approximately
		56 million standard does of amphetamines.  About 556 standard
		doses of barbituates are also produced or imported for 
		consumption in Canada. [Canadian Government's Commission
		of Inquiry, *The Non-Medical Uses of Drugs*, p. 184

1968		Six to seven percent of all prescriptions written under the
		British National Health Service are for barbituates; it is
		estimated that about 500,000 British are regular users.
		[Young, op. cit. p. 25]

1968		Brooklyn councilman Julius S. Moskowitz charges that the 
		work of New York City's Addiction Services Agency, under
		its retiring Commissioner, Dr. Efren Ramierez, was a 
		"fraud," and that "not a single addict has been cured."
		[Charles G. Bennett, Addiction agency called a "fraud,"
		*New York Times*, Dec. 11, 1968, p. 47]

1969		U.S. production and value of some medical chemicals:
		barbituates: 800,000 pounds, $2.5 million; aspirin
		(exclusive of salicylic acid) 37 milliion pounds,
		value "withheld to avoid disclosing figures for 
		individual producers"; salicylic acid: 13 million
		pounds, $13 million; tranquilizers: 1.5 million
		pounds, $7 million. [*Statistical Abstracts of the
		United States*, 1971 92nd Annual Edition, p. 75]

1969		The parents of 6,000 secondary-level students in
		Clifton, New Jersey, are sent letters by the Board
		of Education asking permission to conduct saliva tests
		on their children to determine whether or not they use 
		marijuana. [Saliva tests asked for Jersey youths on
		marijuana use, *New York Times*, Apr. 11, 1969, p. 12]

1970		Dr. Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, Nobel Laureate in Medicine and
		Physiology, in reply to being asked what he would do if 
		he were twenty today: "I would share with my classmates
		rejection of the whole world as it is--all of it.  Is there
		any point in studying and work?  Fornication--at least that
		is something good.  What else is there to do?  Fornicate
		and take drugs against the terrible strain of idiots who
		govern the world." [Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, in *The New
		York Times*, Feb. 20, 1970, quoted in Mary Breastead, *Oh!
		Sex Education!*, p. 359]

1971		President Nixon declares that "America's Public Enemy
		No. 1 is drug abuse."  In a message to Congress, the President
		calls for the creation of a Special Action Office of Drug
		Abuse Prevention.  [The New Public Enemy No. 1, *Time*,
		June 28, 1971, p. 18]

1971		On June 30, 1971, President Cvedet Sunay of Turkey decrees
		that all poppy cultivation and opium production will be 
		forbidden beginning in the fall of 1972. [Patricia M Wald
		et al. (Eds.), *Dealing with Drug Abuse*, p. 257]

1972		Myles J. Ambrose, Special Assistant Attorney General of 
		the United States: "As of 1960, the Bureau of Narcotics
		estimated that we had somewhere in the neighborhood
		of 55,000 addicts . . . they estimate now the figure is
		560,000. [Quoted in *U.S. News and World Report*, April
		3, 1972, p. 38]

1972		The Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs proposes 
		restricting the use of barbituates on the ground that they
		"are more dangerous than heroin." [Restrictions proposed
		on barbituate sales, *Syracuse Herald-Journal*, Mar 16, 
		1972, p. 32]

1972		The house votes 366 to 0 to authorize "a $1 billion,
		three-year federal attack on drug abuse." [$1 billion
		voted for drug fight, *Syracuse Herald-Journal*, March
		16, 1972, p. 32]

1972		At the Bronx house of corrections, out of a total of 780
		inmates, approximately 400 are given tranquilizers such
		as Valium, Elavil, Thorazine, and Librium.  "'I think they
		[the inmates] would be doing better without some of the
		medication,' said Capt. Robert Brown, a correctional officer.
		He said that in a way the medications made his job harder
		. . . rather than becoming calm, he said, an inmate who
		had become addicted to his medication 'will do anything
		when he can't get it.'" [Ronald Smothers, Muslims: What's
		behind the violence, *The New York Times*, Dec. 26, 1972,
		p. 18]

1972		In England, the pharmacy cost of heroin is $.04 per grain
		(60 mg.), or $.00067 per mg.  In the United States, the
		street price is $30 to $90 per grain, or $.50 or $1.50
		per mg. [Wald et al. (Eds.) op. cit. p. 28]

1973		A nationwide Gallop poll reveals that 67 percent
		of the adults interviewed "support the proposal of New York
		Governer Nelson Rockefeller that all sellers of hard drugs
		be given life imprisonment without possibility of parole."
		[George Gallup, Life for pushers, *Syracuse Herald-American*,
		Feb. 11, 1973]

1973		Michael R. Sonnenreich, Executive Director of the National
		Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse, declares: "About 
		four years ago we spent a total of $66.4 million for the
		entire federal effort in the drug abuse area. . . .
		This year we have spent $796.3 million and the budget
		estimates that have been submitted indicate that we will
		exceed the $1 billion mark.  When we do so, we become,
		for want of a better term, a drug abuse industrial 
		complex.: [Michael R. Sonnenreich, Discussion of the
		Final Report of the National Commission on Marijuana
		and Drug Abuse, *Villanova Law Review*, 18:817-827 (May),
		1973; p. 818]

197?		Operation Intercept.    All vehicles returning from Mexico
		are checked by Nixon's order.    Long lines occur and, as
		usual no dent is made in drug traffic.  

1981		Congress ammends the 1878 Posse Comitatus Act, which
		forbids the armed forces to enforce civil law, so that
		the military could provide surveillance planes and ships
		for interdiction purposes.

1984		U.S. busts 10,000 pounds of marijuana on farms in Mexico.
		The seizures, made on five farms in an isolated section of
		Chihuahua state, suggest a 70 percent increase in estimates 
		that total U.S. consumption was 13,000 to 14,000 tons in 1982.  
		Furthermore, the seizures add up to nearly eight times the 
		1300 tons  that officials had calculated Mexico produced 
		in 1983.  [the San Francisco Chronicle, Saturday, 
		November 24, 1984]

1985		Pentagon spends $40 million on interdiction.

1986		The Communist Party boss, Boris Yeltsin  said that the 
		Moscow school system is rife with drug addiction, 
		drunkenness and principles that take bribes.  He
		said that drug addiction has become such a problem 
		that there are 3700 registered addicts in Moscow. [The 
		San Francisco Chronicle, Sept. 22, 1986, p. 12]