|Lycaeum > Leda > Documents > Sulfurous Samadhi - An Investigation of 2C-T-2 & 2C-T-7, by Murple|
An Investigation of 2C-T-2 & 2C-T-7
by Murple, Feb 6, 2001
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I first heard of 2C-T-2 in the summer of 1998, when I began to hear stories about a new 2C-B replacement being sold by smartshops in the Netherlands. PIHKAL deepened my interest. I began looking around and found several online companies based in the Netherlands and Sweden selling the pills, but none were willing to ship to the United States, citing as a reason that that the drug is illegal in the United States. Frustrated, and realizing that 2C-T-2 is not in fact scheduled in the United States (although the analogue laws most likely apply), I kept looking. Several months later, I found a smartshop willing to sell to Americans. I immediately ordered several doses.
My first time taking the drug was on Easter, April 4, 1999. I had not intended to take 2C-T-2 that day, instead taking some mescaline in the form of cactus extract. Several hours later I decided that the cactus was not sufficiently potent and that I was not where I wanted to be. I decided to take one 8mg pill of 2C-T-2. I soon reached a wonderful space which was for the most part like a mild to moderate mescaline trip. I was incredibly excited to have found a mescaline-like psychedelic which was legally obtainable which produced a trip of a nice manageable duration. Best of all, there was no horrible green slime to drink!
A couple weeks later, on April 17, I had my first full exposure to 2C-T-2. Along with a friend, I took three pills for a dose of 24mg. We soon found ourselves in the midst of incredibly visual and bizzarre trips. My friend lay on the couch nearly unresponsive, lost in his own internal world. I roamed my apartment watching inanimate objects dance with new life. After several hours, I found myself on the other side of a magical experience. This drug had surpassed all expectations - very impressive!
I tried 2C-T-2 several times after that, including combinations with MDMA and 2C-B. I was very upset a few months later when it was announced that it had been made illegal in the Netherlands and would no longer be sold.
When 2C-T-7 became commercially available at the end of 1999, I was overjoyed. I promptly purchased some and tried it twice within a month. It too was very impressive, although I preferred 2C-T-2 slightly, mostly due to its shorter duration. Soon thereafter, 2C-T-2 became commercially available once again from new sources. Although nowadays I virtually never have the opportunity to use psychedelics, and although it has been over a year since my experiments with 2C-T-7, both of these chemicals continue to fascinate me.
Within a few months of becoming available, I began to notice a rapid growth in the popularity of 2C-T-7. Out of an concern about widespread use of such obscure drugs, fueled in part by a desire to look after my own personal safety, I decided to try and gather all the information available about both of these drugs. I began collecting first hand reports, looking for scientific research, and contacting experts in the field. It didn't take long to realize that there was very little information to collect. Other than PIHKAL, a handful of first hand reports, and a few minor mentions in various publications, there was nothing.
In the months since then, working on this paper has been a fascinating project. I have communicated with many fascinating people, from scientists to smartshop employees, from users to British government employees. I have read everything from previously unpublished scientific notes to barely intelligible trip reports from dangerously ignorant people. I have had the joy of hearing about powerfully positive life-changing experiences from both drugs, and I have had the sadness of having to break the story of the first death involving 2C-T-7.
There were many dark times when I was deeply disturbed and saddened by some of the reckless use many recreational users engaged in. For several months before the death of Jake Duroy, there was a disturbing lack of respect for these drugs. In spite of repeated warnings from more experienced users that these are new and unstudied drugs, many users carelessly took massive doses of the drug. Reports of accidental overdoses and overwhelming bad trips began appearing on the Internet. Reports of people selling 2C-T-7 at raves and concerts, sometimes representing it as other drugs, began to appear. Ever since the early days of mescaline research, people have debated if and how access to psychedelic drugs should be controlled, and this issue has come up often in connection to 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7 and other exotic drugs. With time and experience, especially after the the death of Jake Duroy, the situation with these drugs gradually began to turn around. People began to respect the nature of these drugs a little more, and became a little less gung-ho in their use.
The darker episodes in my research are easily made up for by all the benefit I have seen people derive from using these two drugs, and the benefits I hope this paper will provide. When used wisely, these drugs are powerful tools for personal growth. This paper collects for the first time all the published knowledge we now have about these drugs. In addition, this paper presents months worth of new research into the history, effects and risks of both chemicals, including surveys of nearly five hundred users and previously unpublished historical information. Furthermore, I have presented quite a few theories and ideas which have occured to me during my research. Hopefully, this material will grab the attention of researchers who can try to fill in the many gaps in our knowledge. My hope is that this paper will dispell many of the rumors about these drugs and enable people who decide to use them to do so in a manner that is not only safe but which increases their chances of having a positive and rewarding experience.
Thanks to Kaya and Rollie, co-travellers and friends. Thanks to Sasha Shulgin for his research and for his assistance in collecting data for this project. Thanks to the staff of Erowid for allowing me to run my survey on their servers, and for their invaluable proofreading and critiquing services. Thanks also to the staff of the Lycaeum for helping spread the word about the user surveys. Thanks to the staffs of De Sjamaan and Conscious Dreams for their crucial help in assembling the history of these drugs. Thanks to the hundreds of people who responded to surveys or contributed trip reports or information. Thanks and condolences to the friends of Jake Duroy who took the time during their grief to help document what happened, so that others could learn from it and future deaths be prevented. Thanks to all the researchers before me who laid the foundations that made this paper possible. And last but certainly not least, thanks to the countless people who take the time to help others be safe, working for legal reform, spreading accurate information about drugs and fighting misinformation in the face of oppression and ignorance.
2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 are two closely related chemicals in a series of phenethylamine compounds created by Alexander Shulgin. The 2C prefix derives from the fact that these compounds are the two carbon phenethylamine homologues of previously made three carbon amphetamines, having the alpha-methyl group removed. Shulgin named most of the 2C compounds by adding the last letter of the amphetamine prototype's name, for example 2C-B from DOB and 2C-I from DOI. The 2C-T series is based on the three carbon ALEPH series (described in detail in Shulgin's book, PIHKAL), and the T comes from the fact that the original name for ALEPH-1 was DOT (T standing for "thio", from it's sulfur atom). There are a whole series of 2C-T compounds which have been made or theorized, and the numbering of the series was assigned in the order the chemicals were thought up, rather than due to any structural properties.
So far, the only syntheses which have been published are Shulgin's methods as described in PIHKAL. Shulgin's recipes for 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 have been included as appendices to this paper.
2C-T-2's full name is 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylthiophenthylamine, and 2C-T-7's is 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylthiophenethylamine. Both chemicals generally come in the form of a hydrochloride salt, which are white crystalline powders. As free bases, both chemicals are a clear white oil. 2C-T-2 has the molecular formula C12H19NO2S and a molecular weight of 241.3476. 2C-T-7, has the molecular formula C13H21NO2S and its molecular weight is 255.3744. 2C-T-2 has a boiling point of 120-130° Celsius (at 300 microns). 2C-T-7 has a boiling point of 140-150° Celsius at 251 microns.
Both chemicals react to Marquis reagent, the principal ingredient in ecstasy testing kits, by producing an orange-red color reaction (similar to the color of uncooked salmon). 2C-T-2 produces a slightly more orange color, and 2C-T-7 a slightly more red color, but the difference is minute.
Regarding the stability of these chemicals, in 2000, Shulgin re-examined the original discovery samples of 2C-T-7 and the closely related 2C-T-4, to make sure that the propyl and isopropyl groups, respectively, had not been compromised. These samples were at the time well into their second decade. Both samples were still white, and the spectra showed clean when checked by mass spectroscopy. When asked about the possibility of long term storage of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7, he said "I feel that the solids are stable with time." It is probably advisable to store the chemicals in air-tight, light-proof containers (such as amber glass vials with good caps) in a cool, dry location.
Since these chemicals have become more widely available, some people have been dissolving them in solvents to allow for measuring doses out by liquid volume. The two most popular solvents for this purpose have been water and ethyl alcohol. There have been mixed reports as to the solubility of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. Some have reported that when making solutions using water, with time, the drugs recrystallize and settle to the bottom. Reports of both unexpectedly strong and weak reactions raise questions about just how soluble these chemicals are. One factor which needs to be accounted for as well is that the solvents being used are not pure. Although advocates of this measurement technique recommend using distilled water, it is possible that people are also using plain bottled water and even unfiltered tap water. Some people use high proof liquor such as vodka or grain alcohol as a solvent. This offers the advantage of protecting against biological contaminants, and appears to offer somewhat better solubility. Regardless of which solvent is used, the impurities present in both liquor and water could conceivably alter the ability of the phenethylamines to enter and remain in solution, and could potentially react with them chemically. Another factor which could alter the ability of the chemicals to remain in solution is the temperature at which the solution is stored. Solutions which are stable at room temperature may separate out if stored in the refrigerator. The long term molecular stability of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 in solution has never been explored, and there is the possibility that they may be less stable when stored in solution versus being stored in pure form.
Shulgin has thought up and named twenty-four compounds in the 2C-T series of phenethylamines. Nine of these have been synthesized and evaluated up to active doses, two have been synthesized but have not had their activities discovered, and the rest have never been made. There is also a twenty-fifth chemical in this series which not only was never made, but never officially assigned a 2C-T-X code name.
After all this, Shulgin decided that while the 2C-T family of drugs was pharmacologically interesting, it no longer seemed too challenging from a creative chemistry perspective. Realizing that others could pick up with them where he left off, using the knowledge in PIHKAL, he abandoned further research with the 2C-T series. Information gleaned from this research went on to bear other interesting fruit, however. Seduced by the unexpected enhancement of activity achieved by substituting sulfur for oxygen, Shulgin turned his attention back to mescaline and its derivatives escaline and meta-escaline. He spent several months synthesizing sulfur analogues of these, a process culminating in the creation and evaluation of all five possible compounds. The results were positive. 3-Thioescaline (3-TE) was found active in the 60 to 80mg range, and 4-TE in the 20 to 30mg range. 3-Thio-meta-escaline (3-TME) as well as 4-TME were both found active in the range of 60 to 100mg. 5-TME has been run up to 200mg, and if it is active, the dosage must be higher than this. Including an ethoxy group into the mescaline molecule and then inserting a sulfur atom was found to be able to increase the potency up to twenty times that of mescaline (as in the case of 4-TE). Further offspring of this line of research can be found in PIHKAL, including thioproscaline (which exhibited some unpleasant effects) and 4-thiobuscaline (which appears to be primarily a euphoriant). Shulgin then went on to explore this ethoxy/thio substitution in the tryptamine world, documenting some of his finds in TIHKAL.
Regarding further explorations of the 2C-T series: if anyone has continued this research as Shulgin hoped, the results have not been made publically available. This field is ripe for picking.
The history of these two compounds begins in 1981, when sometime between July 28 and August 20 (the exact date is unknown), Alexander Shulgin first synthesized 2C-T-2. The first human trial of this drug took place at 10:50AM on the morning of August 20 of that year, when Shulgin took 5mg. After an hour, no effects were noted, so he took another 5mg. Within 10 minutes, effects became apparent, and Shulgin reached a +1 level experience, meaning a real and unmistakable effect of measurable duration is felt, but its nature is not clear. The next trial took place soon after, at 10:10 in the morning on September 2, when Shulgin took 15mg, and reached a +2 level experience, meaning that the nature of the drug is clear, but the effects could still be mostly suppressed if required, such as to handle an emergency situation. Several weeks later, on October 24, Shulgin and his wife Ann each took 18mg at 4:50PM, which led to what he describes as "a fine +++ with much energy and no apparent price to pay -- it was excellent but there were hints of dark corners" (a +3 indicates that the full potential of the drug's effects have been reached). On December 5, 1981, Shulgin took 2C-T-2 to his research group for its first group trial, where 9 people assayed it in dosages from 12 to 16mg Later group trials ran the dosage level up to well over 20mg, and in the end it was decided to state 2C-T-2's dosage range to be 12-25mg.
A few years later, 2C-T-7 was first synthesized. At 9:25 on the morning of January 16, 1986, Shulgin performed the first human test of this drug with a 2mg dose. No effects were noted, nor were any noted with a 4mg trial several days later. Between February and May of that year, Shulgin conducted further bioassays, having several effective trials with 20-25mg doses, most reaching the +3 level. On October 16, 1986, a small group experiment was conduced with 2C-T-7 to check the drug's effect on the cardiovascular system. Most subjects had a slight rise in both systolic and diastolic pressure between the second and fourth hours, and all were back to normal (and even below normal in a few cases) by the tenth hour. On September 28, Shulgin first presented 2C-T-7 to his research group.
After their discovery and the initial explorations into their effects, these drugs languished in obscurity for several years. They were first introduced to the public with the 1991 publication of Alexander Shulgin's book PIHKAL which not only described their effects but described how to synthesize them, making them available for independent researchers to investigate them.
Among these early pioneers were Myron J. Stolaroff and Charles W. Wells, who in 1993 published a paper which summarized a series of experiments designed to compare the therapeutic potential of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 to MDMA. In this study, subjects who had not tried any of the three drugs were given one of the drugs and later asked to fill out a survey on the experience. The results of this study found that 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 have significant therapeutic potential, and in fact, they have been used in psychedelic therapy, often as a follow-up to a dose of MDMA. The results of this study will be discussed in more detail elsewhere in this paper. Stolaroff also discusses his work with 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7 and several other drugs in the 2C-T series in his 1994 book Thanatos to Eros: Thirty-Five Years of Psychedelic Exploration.
The next mention of these drugs in publication was in the 1994 paper "Structure-Activity Relationships of the Classic Hallucinogens and Their Analogs" by Peyton Jacob III and Alexander Shulgin. This paper did not focus very strongly on 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7 however.
A turning point in the history of these drugs occurred in November of 1997, when pills alleged to be 2C-T-7 began to appear in the so-called "smartshops" in the Netherlands. These are stores which usually sell items such as peyote cacti, psilocybin mushrooms, and various herbal drugs as well as nutritional supplements. In the beginning, many smartshops were selling these pills. At one point, the Dutch police apparently confiscated these pills from several smartshops, but later returned the merchandise with approval to sell it.
One shop, De Sjamaan, had the pills analyzed by a lab after their test group had tried them and found the effects to be different from the results they expected based upon reports they had read. They found out that the pills were in fact 2C-T-2 which was being misrepresented. According to one version of the story, the wholesaler of the pills was misrepresenting them out of a desire to put off the authorities and keep 2C-T-2 legal. Another version says that the wholesaler honestly thought they had 2C-T-7 and that it had been misrepresented to them by the manufacturer. In either case, after getting the lab results, De Sjamaan and other stores began to market the tablets under their proper identity. Other sources interviewed for this article were skeptical of De Sjamaan's claims to have tested the pills, due to difficulty in getting such tests done, and claim that they continued to be sold everywhere as 2C-T-7 for several more months, until a different company did an analysis on the pills. On the other hand, a 2C-T-2 report by Horus states "2C-T-2 has been sold in the Dutch smartshops from November 1997 until now," which lends credence to the notion that it was being sold under its proper name at this time.
The wholesaler of the tablets approached another smartshop, Conscious Dreams, in early 1998 offering to sell them 2C-T-7. Being suspicious about the identity of the pills, due to the difficulties involved in making 2C-T-7, they also decided to have the pills sent to a lab for analysis. This turned out to be a difficult task, as many of the labs they went to, including the government's criminology lab, did not have reference standards for 2C-T-7. Finally a sympathetic university professor was found who was willing and able to do the analysis. At this point VLOS, which is an organization of smartshops headed by a 5 member board (one of whom at the time was a Conscious Dreams employee), was against the marketing of these pills because the actual ingredients were not yet known and therefore there were concerns over their safety.
On April 20, 1998, Conscious Dreams got their lab results back, finding that the pills were in fact 2C-T-2. They issued an announcement that the 2C-T-7 pills were in fact 2C-T-2, that they were pure, and that they had been offered and had bought the distribution rights to the material. After taking care of packaging and promotional concerns, they began marketing 2C-T-2 in May of 1998. Promotional posters, information fliers, and product packaging all bore a design of blue dots and white lattice-work over a florescent orange background, designed by Donald Beekman Studio. An English translation of the informational flier incorrectly called 2C-T-2 an amphetamine, but this error is not present on the Dutch version of the flier.
Despite the fact that Conscious Dreams purchased sole distribution rights to 2C-T-2, the wholesaler apparently continued selling the material to other companies. In addition, De Sjamaan was independently obtaining 2C-T-2, and a price war between them and Conscious Dreams broke out. Conscious Dreams, interestingly, denies that such a price war ever occurred. Perhaps this can be explained by the fact that Conscious Dreams was at the time a much larger company, and it's possible that while De Sjamaan felt competition from the larger Conscious Dreams, the sales volume of the smaller company was not enough that their price cuts were even noticed by the larger.
July of 1998, Conscious Dreams was selling 2C-T-2 in packages of two 8mg tablets for 25 guilders, which at the time was approximately $12.50 (US). After several months, this was changed to three tablets for 30 guilders. In addition to selling 2C-T-2 retail through their own shops, Conscious Dreams also sold the pills wholesale to other smartshops through the distributorship branch of the company. De Sjamaan was selling 3 tablets for 25 guilders. Prices at other smartshops varied. Tambu Passionstore in Rotterdam was selling 3 tablets for $18.00 (US). A July 13 promotional email sent out by another smartshop, The Gate (based in Amerongen) read:
Another curious situation arose from the earlier confusion as to the identity of the drug in the pills. Even after lab analyses had been done, and after statements had been issued about the true identity of the pills, some shops continued to sell the pills as 2C-T-7. In some cases, these shops would be selling identical pills as both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7, side by side, oblivious to the fact that they were both the same pills. And as if this were not enough, there is yet another twist to the confusion surrounding 2C-T-2 in the Netherlands. A synthetic amphetamine known as 4-MTA (para-methylthioamphetamine) was sold under the brand name S5 for a while in the Dutch smartshops. Structurally related to the toxic amphetamine PMA (para-methoxyamphetamine), 4-MTA was linked to several deaths and was removed from the market. The laboratory which analyzed the 2C-T-2 pills for Conscious Dreams also analyzed three batches of S5 tablets. While the first two batches were in fact 4-MTA, the third batch was found to contain 2C-T-2.
2C-T-2 was always seen as being a replacement for 2C-B, and it never reached 2C-B's level of popularity in the Netherlands. Never the less, it did however become extremely popular. A representative of De Sjamaan claims that "the most normal people of whom you would never expect, that they would even enter a smartshop, became very regular customers without disrupting their 9 to 5 live in any way." A representative of Conscious Dreams, when asked, gave a rough guess that perhaps 200,000 tablets of 2C-T-2 were sold total. An article on the Dutch party scene in the March 20, 1999 issue of Vrij Nederlan claimed that 2C-T-2 had become the most popular drug sold by the smartshops at that time, with several thousand pills being sold per week. Many people would take 2C-T-2 in combination with alcohol, or sometimes ecstasy, and go out for the night. In the nearly two years that 2C-T-2 was available legally in the Netherlands, not one bad incident involving it was ever reported.
2C-T-2's popularity spread beyond the Netherlands, as well. By July 2, 1998, Smart Drugstore in Sweden was selling 2C-T-2, and continued to do so until April 1, 1999, when it was banned by the Swedish government. It also apparently caught on in Germany, which made 2C-T-2 illegal by emergency scheduling on October 7, 1998, and has since rescheduled it two more times - a situation which will be discussed in the legal status section of this paper.
In January, 1999, a package containing 2C-T-2 was being returned to Conscious Dreams from Japan, and Dutch customs opened it. After reading the product information flier, an Adjunct Inspector decided that it was making pharmaceutical claims, due to terms like "psychedelic" and "hallucinations." Due to the fact that the government could not demonstrate 2C-T-2 was a hazard to public health, it was not made a scheduled drug under normal Dutch drug law. As a round-about method of banning it, it was instead declared to be an unregistered medicine on April 12, 1999.
Conscious Dreams stopped selling 2C-T-2 on April 6, 1999, after running out of stock. A period of confusion followed the banning of the drug in the Netherlands. The wholesaler stopped selling it and avoided giving a clear reason for why. Rumors began to circulate that the chemist who was manufacturing had either disappeared or been busted for manufacturing MDMA. When inquiring about availability from various smartshops, explanations ranging from "The wholesaler is having supply problems but we expect more soon" to "It has been made illegal" to "We don't know what's going on" were given to customers. Shops which still had supplies of the pills continued to sell them. Finally, on July 29, 1999, Conscious Dreams received papers from the Inspectie voor de Volksgezondheid (People's Health Inspector) in Haarlem informing them of the fact that 2C-T-2 had been banned. On July 30, Conscious Dreams sent out the following e-mail announcement:
Some smartshops kept selling 2C-T-2 until November 1999, when their supplies ran out. No arrests were made, however. Since then, 2C-T-2 has not become a black market drug in the Netherlands. This is probably due to the fact that it is somewhat more difficult for underground labs to manufacture than other drugs for which there are much more demand.
Starting in summer of 1999, 2C-T-7 made its appearance in the Netherlands. At the end of 1999, the manufacturer offered to sell the pills to Conscious Dreams, who had the material analyzed. Although the pills were found to be authentic, they decided to pass on it out of concern over legal repercussions. However, De Sjamaan and other smartshops began selling 2C-T-7 in early 2000, under the brand name Blue Mystic. The information flier lists the active ingredient under an alternative name, "PT-DM-PEA" (short for 4-propylthio-2,5-dimethoxy-phenethylamine) rather than 2C-T-7, this being done to avoid customers becoming confused between 2C-T-7 and 2C-T-2. Blue Mystic was originally offered in sets of three 7.5mg blue tablets, but this was later changed to being sold in packages of five tablets for 25 guilders. Several months later, the tablets were reformulated to 10mg, sold in packages of three. As with 2C-T-2 before it, prices vary between shops, for example Tambu Passionstore's price being $25.00 (US) for 5 tablets.
The product information states that women need 2-3 pills and men need 4-5 for an effective dose, although 15% of people need much lower doses. These figures are based on surveys which De Sjamaan conducted at the Entheobotany 2000 conference in Palenque, Mexico, as well as an on-going survey of their customers. The complete results of these surveys have not yet been made public because the project has not yet been completed. The most obvious problem with the Blue Mystic flier, however, is that it states booster doses do not work - they certainly do. When questioned about this, Ananda of De Sjamaan stated "Boosting does work. But not below the threshold, i.e. one can take 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 mg's, with 1.5 hours in between. Getting only a plus one, while a dose of 15 mg's on the same person would probably give a plus 2 or even 3. When this person experiences his or her plus 2, boosting would be a option. This became apparent when Blue Mystic was sold per 3 tabs of 7.5 mg's. Most women found it to be strong, while most men claimed it did not work."
At least two versions of the product information flier have been used. The first was distributed with the original 7.5mg tablets, and the second with the newer 10mg tablets.
Also, unlike 2C-T-2, Blue Mystic is being distributed to smartshops with instructions to store owners not to sell 2C-T-7 to everyone, to try and screen out customers who seem to be unstable or unprepared. Store owners are also being asked to talk to customers one on one and give them usage and safety information, so as to try and minimize any irresponsible behavior which might attract the attention of the authorities.
In July of 2000, VLOS issued a statement to member shops advising against selling 2C-T-7. This was merely a recommendation, however, and member shops were told they would not be expelled from VLOS if they continued to sell it. VLOS believes that the Dutch government will not accept the sale of synthetic drugs by smartshops, both because of a perceived, but not actual, connection with ecstasy manufacturers and because of concern about international pressure.
Meanwhile, elsewhere in the world, both of these drugs became available from a handful of chemical supply companies. 2C-T-7 in early January, 2000, followed by 2C-T-2 in April, became available as pure powders. Unlike the Dutch smartshops, these companies were not offering their products for human consumption, and in fact explicitly forbade such use in their customer agreements. Also unlike the Dutch smartshops, these companies do business internationally. As a result of this new global availability, interest in these drugs grows among serious researchers and recreational users alike.
Between February 21 and 27, 2000, at the Entheobotany conference in Palenque, Mexico, 2C-T-7 (mostly in the form of Blue Mystic tablets, but also as pure chemical) was being assayed by a large group of people. One attendee, Casey Hardison, seized this opportunity to do some research. He designed an informal survey which he passed out to people who had taken 2C-T-7. Hardison collected fourty-eight completed surveys which he analyzed, and his findings were published in the Summer 2000 issue of the Bulletin of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies.
By late summer, 2000, 2C-T-7 has gained significant popularity with some groups of people. Discussion of this drug on the Internet has grown exponentially over the course of the year. It has earned several nicknames, including "lucky 7," "7-up," "7th heaven," "beautiful" and "tripstacy." In spite of its availability, interest in 2C-T-2 has not kept pace with 2C-T-7.
In late September 2000, reports began to surface from a small group of people in Canada that they had encountered a few 2C-T-7 pills circulating at a rave in Vancouver, BC. These pills were being sold under the name "Red Raspberry" and were rumored by some to contain a mixture of 2C-T-7 and "speed." One person, who had used 2C-T-7 previously, tried the pills and thought it was unlikely they contained any amphetamines, and commented that the pills were not particularly strong either. Based on his experience, he estimates the pills contained perhaps 10 or 12 milligrams of 2C-T-7. No analysis of the pills have been done to confirm whether or not they contain any 2C-T-7.
Reports of other pressed pills of 2C-T-7 have appeared sporadically. On September 3, 2000, a person going by the name ghost-2501 posted to the Internet discussion board Bluelight that he had heard of pills called "Green Fish" which were alleged to be 2C-T-7. The pills had a logo which was described as "a tilted square with an eye and a triangle making the tail." In July 2000, the harm reduction group DanceSafe posted a pill to their laboratory pill analysis web site which was called a "Number 7," sent in by someone in the Chicago area. Although the lab did not detect any known drugs, there are some curious factors, and it must be kept in mind that since 2C-T-7 is a relatively obscure chemical, the laboratory doing the analysis likely did not have a reference standard for detecting it, so it can not be ruled out that the pill could have contained it. The most obvious pieces of evidence are the name of the pill and the #7 stamp appearing on it. Adding to the mystery is the fact that the pill reacted to a Marquis reagent assay with a "slight orange color." Pure 2C-T-7 gives a salmon orange reaction to Marquis reagent. I contacted DanceSafe's national director Emanuel Sferios about this to see if the pill was still available for further analysis, and he told me that he would find out. I received no further response, so it seems likely the pill was disposed of, leaving this an unsolvable mystery.
2C-T-7 has also circulated on the drug market in its natural form, a powder. Trey Mosmeyer of the Austin Dance Alliance, a Texas based harm reduction group, reports that 2C-T-7 experienced a brief period of popularity in the Dallas area during the last half of 2000. A few dealers caught wind of the substance and began marketing it as a new legal drug which "makes acid look like nothing." It was sold under the names "beautiful" and "belladonna," the last being particularly dangerous as it could easily lead an uninformed person into thinking that it is the same drug found in the plant belladonna. A few problems arose due to confusion with the drug ketamine. People who were unaware of the existence of 2C-T-7 saw the drug, and due to its similar appearance, mistook it for ketamine and snorted ketamine-size doses of the drug, leading to some rather severe panic reactions. This was compounded when people who mistook the drug for ketamine turned around and sold it to others as ketamine. In a few cases this may not have been accidental. Mosmeyer said he heard of two cases where people intentionally misrepresented 2C-T-7 as ketamine, adding that "they were both soulless bastards who didn't care, but needed to sell it as something people knew."
On various Internet based discussion forums, occasional reports have surfaced of people selling 2C-T-7 on the drug market. In most cases, it is being sold either under its proper name or a slang term such as "lucky 7" or "beautiful." A few isolated reports have been made of it being misrepresented as other substances, such as mescaline. Although it is impossible to tell the extent to which 2C-T-7 has been sold on the black market, it seems likely that it is a fairly uncommon occurrence. The general unfamiliarity of the drug-using public with the substances combined with the easy access to more established drugs likely has prevented them from becoming popular black market drugs.
There have been a few tragic incidents reported involving 2C-T-7. While there have been quite a few reports of people who took too much and had severe panic reactions, there have been only seven serious incidents reported. Considering that the drug has probably been taken thousands of times by hundreds of individuals, and considering the reckless usage patterns of some users, this seems a testament to the relative safety of the drug. Thus far, no serious incidents have been reported involving 2C-T-2, and considering the longer history that drug has, this seems to indicate that it to may be a quite safe drug. Nevertheless, no drug is entirely safe and abnormal reactions, allergies, and overdoses all could lead to an unexpected tragedy. In addition, it must be remembered that no formal studies into toxicology have ever been done for these drugs, so the risks are largely unknown or theoretical at best.
One of the first reported tragedies occurred at the end of August 2000 in Europe, and was posted to the Lycaeum on September 1, 2000. Three people got together and tried 2C-T-7. One took it orally, while the other two each insufflated 25mg, an unusually large dose when taken by this route. Three hours later one of the people who had snorted it began behaving strangely. He became somewhat delirious, unable to understand anything when spoken to, and repeating the same few sentences over and over again. Starting at 5 hours after snorting it, he began repeating action sequences. According to a witness, "first he would ask if he can wash is face, no matter what he got as an answer, he'd go splash water on his face, then sit down and ask for a cigarette, get up and ask if he can wash his face... and so on ...This lasted for hours." Eventually this stopped, but he kept speaking of strange things. According to the witness, "he told us about places underground where he lived and was a horrible centipede." Even at the eight hour point he is complaining about animals living in the walls and floor that wanted to eat him. The next morning, at the 16 hour point, he was still tripping. The other two people went to work, and when they came home later they found their friend in the bath tub with both wrists slit, and deep cuts up and down his harms. They called an ambulance, and the man was saved. When asked about it later, the man said he could not remember anything about what had happened. The most probable explanation here is that the person has an underlying mental condition which was triggered by taking an enormous dose of a powerful psychedelic drug.
The most tragic incident involving 2C-T-7 was the death of a 20 year old man named Jake Duroy in Norman, Oklahoma. I was first made aware of this death when a friend of Mr. Duroy responded to the 2C-T-7 user survey I was running in conjunction with Erowid. After interviewing several of Mr. Duroy's friends and reading articles in local newspapers (none of which ever mentioned the drug by name), I have been able to piece together what may have happened.
Jake Duroy had taken 2C-T-7 one occasion before, in July 2000, when he insufflated 15mg. He had no unusual reactions to it that time. Mr. Duroy was 20 years old, approximately 170 pounds, having no known medical conditions other than asthma [Erowid Note: we have received more recent information stating that Jake did not, in fact, have asthma] and was in good health, being a member of the Fellowship of Christian Athletes active in many sports. Jake was not taking any medications at the time of his death, and the only other drug he had used recently was some marijuana the night before his death.
Mr. Duroy and his friends had obtained some 2C-T-7 from a chemical supply company. After his death, a sample of the material was analyzed by the police lab and found to be pure, ruling out the possibility of a contaminated batch. The material was weighed out on a very accurate digital scale one of the friends had purchased, so the dose taken is fairly certain (though one friend said the he was not sure if Mr. Duroy had actually used the scale to weigh his dose, so this is still open to question).
On October 15, 2000, Jake Duroy and a group of friends got together at a house on the 1200 block of Dakota to take some 2C-T-7. Along with one other person, Mr. Duroy snorted a massive 35mg of the drug. Three other people present took lower doses orally.
Within twenty minutes of taking the 2C-T-7, Mr. Duroy became agitated and frightened, and complained of being cold. He began talking about "evil spirits" being in the room, and decided to retreat to a corner of the room to lie down and try to get warm with a blanket. He remained within sight of his friends, who were somewhat concerned about his agitated state. Other than some vomiting, which is a fairly common side effect, he seemed physically fine at this point. The other person who had snorted 35mg experienced similar symptoms, though milder. This person took a Rohypnol tablet and within an hour was asleep, having no further complications and little memory of the experience. At around ninety minutes after taking the drug, Mr. Duroy began to have convulsions, and began simultaneously vomiting and bleeding heavily from the nose.
When his friends realized Mr. Duroy was in trouble, they called a friend to come help them. They put him in the car to drive to the hospital. On the way to the hospital, they had to stop at a railroad crossing to wait for a passing train. They noticed Mr. Duroy had stopped breathing several times and tried to clear his airway. Had they instead called for an ambulance, perhaps this tragedy could have had a happier ending, as the hospital is only a five minute drive from the house where it happened. One can only speculate why they did not, but it seems likely it was out of fear. Some of the people present had been arrested on drug charges a few months earlier, and were afraid of what might happen if police came to the house. In this regard we can say that the War on Drugs played a very big role in the death of Jake Duroy and that in a country with more enlightened drug laws, Jake Duroy might not have died. On the other hand, when a life is at stake, such concerns need to take a back seat, and it is my opinion that not calling 911 in a situation like this can only be described as criminally negligent.
According to Norman police detective Don Blake, Mr. Duroy was brought into the emergency room at the Norman Regional Hospital at 2:20PM in full cardiac arrest, having died in the car on the way to the hospital. Police began investigating the incident, telling the local newspaper The Norman Transcript that they suspected the death was due to "some kind of designer drug." In the end, an autopsy determined that the cause of death was cardiac arrest brought on by choking on vomit.
One other serious incident was reported by a survey respondent. In this case, a young man in Mexico took 30mg of 2C-T-7 orally while out with some friends. While crossing a street, his friends noticed that he had stopped and was staring blankly at a street light. He then fell to the ground, hit his head, and began having convulsions. His friends called an ambulance. After being treated in the hospital, he was told he had suffered a mild heart attack. He did not tell the doctors he had taken 2C-T-7, because he was worried he would get in trouble for drug use. Instead, he told them he had fallen and hit his head because he was drunk. He had in fact drank some alcohol earlier, and had smoked large quantities of cannabis. He is described by his friend as being in relatively good health, though not very active. He had an abnormal heartbeat when younger, but was told by doctors that he had outgrown it. He was not on any medications at the time, but does use a range of drugs recreationally, including LSD, psilocybin, MDMA and ketamine. He had not taken any of these that day. He was released from the hospital with nothing worse than a mild concussion.
A very similar incident happened in Helsinki, Finland in August, 2000, and was also reported by a survey respondent. A woman known by the respondent insufflated 10mg of 2C-T-7, along with 10 other people who took the same dose. My informant said "the amount was not carefully measured and... I believe that the dose was a bit higher than 10mg because everyone was vomiting and I couldn't get a contact to them." Later the woman fell and hit her head on asphalt and had convulsions, and was taken to the hospital. My informant knew no further details, so it is unknown if the woman had taken any other drugs or had any medical conditions. Although all of the people who took it had a very strong response to the dose they took, my informant said that most enjoyed the experience. Several of them even took more 10 hours after the initial dose, when the effects had worn off.
Another survey respondent reported an overdose incident which happened in Sarasota, Florida. A friend of the respondent, which he described as "an idiot," obtained a 25mg sample of 2C-T-7. He injected the entire 25mg intravenously. According to witnesses he had a good experience for ten minutes, but then suddenly became very violent, throwing objects at people both real and imagined. It was pointed out that he is normally a very violent person. When his girlfriend tried to calm him down, he hit her several times. One witness called the police. After being unable to wrestle him down, they incapacitated him with a large amount of pepper spray. He was strapped to a stretcher and taken by ambulance to a hospital where he stopped breathing and slipped into a coma. He was put on a respirator and remained comatose for five days. Three days after regaining consciousness, he was released from the hospital. No charges were filed in this case.
Another overdose incident was posted to an anti-drug Internet message board called Cascade by a 15 year old boy named Mike, who lives in the United States. According to Mike, on Saturday, November 11, 2000, he snorted 25mg of 2C-T-7. In his own words, "I didn't know what was happening. Intense waves and overwhelming visuals were coming over me...feeling sounds, seeing feelings...not fun at all. I must have puked at least a liter. I told my parents that I thought I overdosed on a research chemical." He was taken to the emergency room, where he was put in the intensive care unit. As there is no mention of any life threatening symptoms, it is possible that Mike was admitted to the ICU as a precautionary measure by concerned doctors who had no idea what else to do. He says of the experience, "I only remember bits and pieces of what happened. If you have seen the movie "Fire in the Sky", I felt like the guy that was abducted. Being in severe confusion and tubes coming out of you is not fun. And urinating though a tube is not the greatest thing...it's even worse when they pull the tube out. I was released from the ICU Sunday. It was extremely scary." Not only does this incident dramatically highlight the fact that children should not use powerful psychoactive drugs, but it shows the complete lack of knowledge most medical professionals have about obscure psychedelic drugs.
One final incident is known to me only by hearsay. Two men in the Netherlands took unspecified doses of 2C-T-7, either before or after eating a greasy Chinese food meal. Later, either one or both of the men began to have a panic reaction, and became entangled in a barbed wire fence of some kind. When police arrived and tried to help him (or them) get freed from the fence, he (or they) refused help and tried to fight off the police. After being removed from the barbed wire, he (or they) got taken to a hospital for observation. One of the men apparently went into a coma for a few days, but recovered. No other details are available, unfortunately, and this could be simply a rumor. It is unknown if any other drugs were involved, or what the mental and physical health of the men was.
By the end of 2000, much of the initial interest in 2C-T-7 began to fade, as the hype surrounding the drug began to be replaced by experience. When the drug first began attracting attention in various circles, particularly among Internet users, there were many misconceptions about the drug. Many people who had no familiarity with phenethylamine drugs other than MDMA were under the impression that 2C-T-7 was some sort of "candyflip" drug which mimicked the effects of combining MDMA with some LSD. People began to look at it as a potential new party drug. As more people tried it and became familiar with the effects, however, attitudes began to change. Over the course of several months, awareness began to spread that it is indeed a powerful mescaline-like psychedelic drug which may not be suitable for a night out dancing. Stories of panic reactions by people who had taken too much began to discourage people from taking recklessly large doses, something which was unfortunately quite prevalent initially. Word of Jake Duroy's death reminded people that this is a relatively new drug and that the risks remain largely unknown. The initial naive hype has slowly begun to fade, and many of the people looking for "the next ecstasy" have moved on to other things, returning 2C-T-7 to the realm of more serious researchers and psychonauts, though of course many people searching for a new recreational drug continue to try it. 2C-T-2 has remained relatively obscure and unpopular, owing perhaps to its reputation as being merely an inferior version of 2C-T-7.
As of yet, there has been no attention paid to these chemicals by the media, at least in the United States. There have been a few brief mentions of 2C-T-2 in the European media, due to the fact that this drug was available commercially there. In spite of the death of Jake Duroy, there have been no mentions of 2C-T-7 in the press other than a passing mention in the November 6, 2000 issue of FEED Magazine.
Little attention has been paid to these drugs by the legal authorities of any countries either. A few European countries made them illegal after 2C-T-2 was sold in the Netherlands, as described previously, but neither drug has attracted enough attention to warrant significant governmental actions.
It is impossible to predict what the future of these drugs will
be, though there is much speculation. The only thing that can be said with
any certainty is that whatever the future holds for 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7, it
is bound to be interesting.
Stolaroff's & Well's Study
Some of the most detailed research into 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 has been carried out by Myron J. Stolaroff. In 1993, Stolaroff published a paper along with Charles W. Wells titled "Preliminary Results with New Psychoactive Agents 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7" in the Yearbook for Ethnomedicine 1993. This paper describes the results of research designed to determine if these drugs showed sufficiently interesting properties to warrant further investigation into their therapeutic potential as well as to discover what side effects they may have. MDMA, a drug with known therapeutic potential, was used as a benchmark for comparing the results.
Subjects for the experience were chosen based on two principal criteria. First, they had to have stable personalities, and second, they had to have no prior experience with any of the three drugs being used in the experiment (all but five, however, had prior experience with other psychedelic drugs). The sixty-three subjects were divided up into three uneven groups: seven were given MDMA, eight were given 2C-T-7, and the remaining fourty were given 2C-T-2.
In all cases, the drugs were administered in a friendly and supportive setting at a comfortable home with natural surroundings. All experiments were overseen by experienced guides, usually two per experiment. Most of the subjects took the drugs in groups of two, though experiments were conducted with groups as large as five and as small as a single individual.
Subjects arrived the night before the experiment, where they spent the evening discussing the drug they were going to be given and choosing a dose, as well as going over their current mental and physical states. Dosages were determined by the subject and the guides after discussing the effect ranges as well and taking into consideration other factors such as previous experience with other drugs. Those who expressed doubts were urged to start lower and take a supplemental dose later, if needed. In the morning, they were given the drug on an empty stomach, and given the entire day to devote to the experience. Supplemental doses were offered at the two hour point for those who wanted them. No formal procedure was in place for the experiments, and subjects were free to talk, walk outside, retreat to private rooms, or whatever else they wished. In the evening, after the experience was over, food was served. In conclusion, the subjects were required to fill out a simple questionnaire within a few days of the experiment.
Participants ranged between 18 and 67 years old. The range for those who took MDMA was 32 to 63, 48 being the average age. For the 2C-T-7 group the range was 30 to 57 with an average age of 42. The 2C-T-2 group ranged from 18 to 67 years old, with an average of 40.
The MDMA group all received 120mg, and all took a 40mg supplement at the two hour mark. The 2C-T-7 group took doses ranging from 20 to 25mg, with an average of 23.1mg, and six of the eight took supplemental doses. The 2C-T-2 group took from 10 to 30mg, with 15.7mg being average, and only eleven of the fourty took supplements. Supplements were found to be effective even as late as five hours after the initial dose, providing an almost immediate increase in activity.
2C-T-2 was found to reach full intensity in about two hours, with a five hour plateau followed by a gradual, usually pleasant descent back to baseline. These researchers found that 2C-T-2 was more emotionally opening than MDMA, and allows wider exploration of feelings. It was also found to permit more freedom of thought, more like LSD than MDMA in this regard. It was also found to enable more surfacing of repressed material than MDMA. Due to the fact that 2C-T-2 has much less of the centering qualities found with MDMA, being more like traditional psychedelics in that regard, this release of subconscious material can at times lead to some uncomfortable experiences.
2C-T-7 was found to be similar to 2C-T-2 but longer acting, more intense, and perhaps more euphoric. Stolaroff and Wells concluded that their sample size for this drug was too small and that further research was needed to define this drug's effects. The small sample size must certainly be taken into account when considering the results of the experiment.
Visually, 2C-T-7 was found slightly more active than 2C-T-2. For both drugs, 12.5% of the subjects reported open eye visual activity. However, 85% of the 2C-T-2 group reported no such activity, versus 75% of the 2C-T-7 group reporting no open eye visuals. None of the MDMA group reported such effects. 62.5% of the 2C-T-7 group reported improved visual perception, with 12.5% reporting worsened perception. With 2C-T-2, 47.5% reported improved visual perception, and 5% reported it worsened. None of the MDMA group reported worsened visual perception, and 42.9% reported it improved. Fully half of the 2C-T-7 group reported closed-eye imagery, as did 47.5% of the 2C-T-2 group. Only 14.3% of the MDMA group reported closed-eye imagery.
On the measure of clarity of thought, 2C-T-7 was found to produce the best results, with 87.5% of the subjects reporting it improved. Unfortunately, it also produced the largest percentage of subjects reporting a loss of clarity, 12.5%. 2C-T-2 produced less dramatic results, with only 75% reporting improvement and 5% reporting a decrease. MDMA also had very good results, with 84.6% reporting improvement and no reports of decreased clarity.
2C-T-7 gave the worst results for effects on flow of insights. Only 50% of subjects reported improvement, and 12.5% reported it worsened. 2C-T-2 produced much better results, with only 2.5% reporting the flow of insights worsened, and 77.5% reporting improvement. MDMA came in second, with 71.5% reporting improvement, and no reports of worsening.
2C-T-7 came in last on the ability to increase perception of high order meaning, with only 62.5% reporting an improvement. 2C-T-2 fared much better, with 82.5% reporting improvement. MDMA performed best in this regard, with 85.8% reporting improvement. None of the three drugs produced any worsening on this measure.
On the measure of feeling tone, 75% of the 2C-T-7 group reported an improvement. In the 2C-T-2 group, 80% reported an improvement, but 10% noticed a worsening in feeling tone. The entire MDMA group reported improved feeling tone.
2C-T-2 produced the worst results in the facilitation of communication. Of this group, 17.5% reported the ability to communicate with others worsened, but 62.5% reported it improved. 2C-T-7 produced better results, with 75% reporting improved communications, and no reports of worsening. MDMA produced the highest percentage reporting improvement, 85.7%, but 14.3% of this group did report a worsened ability to communicate.
An increase in energy level was reported by 37.5% of the 2C-T-7 group, and a decrease reported by 9%. 2C-T-2 did good on this measure, with 70% reporting an increased energy level, and 12.5% reporting a decrease. MDMA did very bad, with 42.9% reporting a decrease, and no increases reported.
2C-T-7 had the best results on overall functioning, with 69.2% reporting improvement and 9.2% reporting deterioration. 2C-T-2 came in second with 57.2% reporting improvement and 14.4% reporting deterioration. MDMA produced the worst results, with 56.5% reporting improved functioning and 15.9% reporting deterioration.
2C-T-7 produced the greatest percentage of experiences without physical side effects, 82.5%. 2C-T-2 had the worst results, with only 72% reporting the absence of physical side effects, however the intensity of side effects for 2C-T-2 was the lowest. Of the MDMA group, 79.3% reported no physical symptoms, although MDMA did result in the largest percentage of side effects described as distracting, 18.9% (versus 9.6% for 2C-T-7 and 8.3% for 2C-T-2).
Both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 produced more complaints about nausea and vomiting than MDMA. 2C-T-2 was worst in this regard, with 10% of subjects reporting noticeable nausea, 17.5% reporting short lived distracting nausea and 5% reporting long lived distracting nausea. Vomiting was reported by 17.5% of this group. Of the 2C-T-7 group, 12.5% reported noticeable nausea and 25% reported long lived distracting nausea. Vomiting occurred in 25% of the group. MDMA produced the least nausea, with 28.6% of subjects reporting distracting but short lived nausea, and no instances of vomiting. Stolaroff and Wells speculate that the nausea produced by 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 may be due to the surfacing of psychological material, as they noticed that many of the subjects reporting nausea said they were aware of what was making them feel ill, and that the nausea disappeared when the issue was confronted.
2C-T-7 produced the highest incidence of muscle tension, with 37.5% of the group experiencing it to some degree. Muscle spasms and tremors were reported by 12.5% of the subjects. 2C-T-2 did a little better, with 32.5% reporting muscle tension. MDMA produced the most muscle tension, being reported by 42.9% of the subjects. It also produced the worst muscle tension, with 28.6% reporting it as long lasting and distracting.
2C-T-7 had the least effect on heart rate, though the exact results are unclear, as the paper states that 100% of the 2C-T-7 group experienced no change in heart rate, but then states that 12.5% reported noticeable change. Of the 2C-T-2 group, 67.5% reported no change in heart rate. Only 57.1% of the MDMA group reported no change on heart rate, and MDMA also produced the worst effects, with 28.6% reporting the effect on heart rate as distracting (versus 5% for 2C-T-2). Effects on blood pressure, strangely enough, run in the opposite order. Only 62.5% of the 2C-T-7 group reported no effect on blood pressure, compared to 67.5% for 2C-T-2 and 71.4% for MDMA.
Other unspecified physical side effects were reported by 20% of the 2C-T-2 group, 7.5% of the group reporting these effects as being distracting.
Asked if they would repeat the experience, 2C-T-7 got the largest number of "no" responses, 12.5%. Of those who would repeat it, 14.4% were happy with the dose they took, while 57.1% would take more. From the 2C-T-2 group, only 85% said they would repeat it, and 7.5% would not. Most, 52.9%, would take more, 8.8% would take less, and 26.5% would take the same dose. All the MDMA subjects said they would take MDMA again, 42.9% at a larger dose, 14.3% at a smaller dose, and 28.6% at the same dose.
In conclusion, the researchers determined that there were no noticeable contraindications for 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 in well motivated subjects. Writing in his book Thanatos to Eros, published a year later, Stolaroff describes 2C-T-2 as being an "excellent general purpose work horse," and a "comfortable, enjoyable vehicle" that can be used to explore a wide range of inner feelings and levels of thought. Because it has some MDMA-like euphoric centering qualities, 2C-T-2 is less likely than the classic psychedelics (such as LSD) to mire the user in disturbing aspects of the subconscious, and leaves the user with more volition. He states the effective dose range as 12 to 30mg, extending it 5mg beyond Shulgin's recommendation in PIHKAL. Stolaroff mentions that 2C-T-2 has occasionally been used in doses of 8 to 10mg by therapists monitoring patients who have taken MDMA. He goes on to describe 2C-T-7 as being an "excellent substance, very clear, very permissive," although it is clear he has less experience with it than with 2C-T-2.
Based on these findings, it seems that 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 are quite different in effects from MDMA, which would indicate different therapeutic applications. It would be interesting to do similar experiments comparing them to other drugs such as 2C-B and LSD, with which they seem to have more in common than MDMA. It would also be very productive to do a more equal comparative study between 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7.
Casey Hardison's Survey
As mentioned previously, Casey Hardison, a graduate student at the University of Idaho, conducted an informal survey of 2C-T-7 users at the Entheobotany conference in Palenque, Mexico in February 2000. Noticing that quite a few people were conducting bioassays of the material, Hardison seized the opportunity to perform some informal impromptu research. He designed a survey which was handed out to conference attendees, and received 48 responses. The results of this survey were published in the Summer 2000 issue of the MAPS Bulletin under the title "An Amateur Qualitative Study of 48 2C-T-7 Subjective Bioassays."
Respondents were of various cultural and ethnic backgrounds, ranging from 24 to 73 years old. 29 respondents were male, 13 female, and the remaining 4 did not specify their sex. 33 of the respondents indicated no prior experience with 2C-T-7 prior to the conference, and 12 indicated they had previously used it from between 1 and 15 times.
The respondents used dosages in the range of 25 to 45mg, which worked out to 0.3 to 0.6mg/kg. The average time until effects were felt was 1.5 hours, with the range of variation being 15 minutes to 4 hours. Time until peak effects ranged from 1 to 6 hours, with the average being 3 hours. Duration of peak effects ranged from 1 to 5 hours, with 3 hours being average. Entire duration ranged from 8 to 18 hours with a median of 12 hours (not all respondents answered this question on the survey). Other drugs which were taken in conjunction with the 2C-T-7 were marijuana, dihydrocodeine, Valium, alcohol, and cocaine.
As far as side effects, nausea and upset stomach were the most commonly reported, with 7 respondents reporting general nausea or stomach discomfort and 3 reporting extreme nausea. Headaches were reported by 4 individuals, and muscle tension by 3. Abdominal cramps, tachycardia and renal pain each received one mention.
35 of the respondents indicated a willingness to repeat the
experience, versus 7 who would not take 2C-T-7 again. 4 individuals did
not respond to this question.
2C-T-2 & 2C-T-7 User Surveys
Originally, I had intended to simply analyze available first-hand experience reports to get a general picture of the effects of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 for this paper. After some thought and discussing the difficulties involved with Earth of Erowid, I wrote up Internet based survey forms which Erowid agreed to host on their web site. Two surveys were made, one for each drug. They asked the same 27 question forms, and each survey was crosslinked to the other so that people who had tried both drugs could easily find and answer both surveys. Questions were designed to study several aspects of these drugs. First was to form a demographic picture of users - for example age, sex, weight, medical condition. Second was to study the logistics of use - dose, route of administration, and frequency. Users were asked several questions each about side effects and aftereffects, and were given a chance to make general comments about the drugs.
The survey software and results (with submitters' email and IP addresses removed) will be made available through Erowid in the future for further analysis. The surveys were put online September 17, 2000 and ran until December 1, 2000. Announcements were made on various Internet drug forums and mailing lists.
Due to the anonymous nature of submissions, this survey should not be considered to be scientific. Surveys were all reviewed in an effort to remove invalid submissions. All responses considered invalid were archived and taken out of the analysis. Some surveys were modified slightly to be easier for the software to read, but all original versions were archived. Some people sent in two surveys, one intended to replace the other. These people's first submissions were archived as well, as were accidental duplicate submissions.
After the removal of unusable submissions, there were 423 valid responses to the 2C-T-7 survey and 43 valid responses to the 2C-T-2 survey. It is unfortunate that there were not more responses to the 2C-T-2 survey, as the ten-fold difference in sample sizes makes comparisons between the two drugs somewhat less conclusive than what was hoped for.
The age range of 2C-T-2 users was 16 to 47 years old, with the average age being 27. One respondent did not list their age. The age range for 2C-T-7 users was 14 to 64 years old, with the average being 24. Four of the 2C-T-7 users did not list their age.
The weight range for 2C-T-2 users was 110 to 270 pounds (50 to 122 kilograms), with the average being 164 pounds (74 kilograms). One respondent did not give their weight. For the 2C-T-7 users, the weight range was 85 to 330 pounds (39 to 150 kilograms) with the average being 166 pounds (75 kilograms). Four of the 2C-T-7 respondents did not give their weight.
For both drugs, the overwhelming majority of the respondents were male. In the case of 2C-T-2, 39 respondents (90.70%) were male and 4 (9.30%) were female. Of the 2C-T-7 users, 378 (89.36%) were male, 42 (9.93%) were female, and 3 (0.71%) did not give their sex.
Respondents were asked to list any pre-existing conditions they may have, including any medications they take. A wide range of medical conditions was listed. Respondents also took a variety of medications which will be discussed later in the section on drug combinations.
Among the 2C-T-2 users, people reported ADD/ADHD, affective disorder, allergies of various kinds (severe enough to require medication, in some cases), anxiety disorder, asthma, bipolar disorder, and hypertension. One respondent indicated that he was addicted to GHB.
The 2C-T-7 users reported quite a few more conditions, owing to the much larger sample size. These included ADD/ADHD, affective disorder, allergies, anxiety disorder, arteriosclerosis, asthma, autozymal tremors, back pain, bipolar disorder, clinical depression, Crohn's disease, insulin dependent diabetes, and endometriosis. One reported having a heart murmur which doctors had ruled "of no medical concern." Moving down the list, other reported conditions included high cholesterol, hypertension, migraines, osteoporosis, rheumatic arthritis, a history of seizures, and stomach ulcers.
In so far as routes of ingestion, 39 (90.70%) of the 2C-T-2 users reported having tried the drug orally, with 36 (83.72%) indicating this as their usual route. 10 respondents (23.26%) had tried taking it via insufflation, and 7 (16.28%) indicated this was their usual way of taking the drug.
The 2C-T-7 users appeared to be more adventurous by comparison. 343 of them (81.09%) said they had tried the drug orally, with 288 (68.09%) indicating this as their usual way of taking it. 200 (47.28%) had tried it via insufflation, with 118 (27.90%) indicating it as their usual route. 38 respondents (8.98%) had tried smoking the drug, with 12 (2.84%) saying it was their usual way of using the drug. 7 users (1.65%) had tried it rectally, with 5 (1.18%) indicating that this was their usual route. 7 respondents (1.65%) stated that they had tried the drug in either an intramuscular or subcutaneous injection, and 3 users (0.70%) tried intravenous injection, but none of the users indicated injection was their usual way of taking it. One user who tried it indicated that injection was a bad idea because the material is not very soluble.
The typical doses used by those taking 2C-T-2 orally ranged from 5mg to 40mg, with the average being 20.76mg. For those who snort the drug, the typical doses ranged from 2.5mg to 35mg, with the average being 13.07mg.
For 2C-T-7, the typical oral doses ranged from 1mg to 125mg, with the average being 26.64mg. Twelve of those who said their usual way of taking 2C-T-7 was orally did not give a typical dose. It should be noted that the user who listed 125mg as their typical dose was a one time user who took this amount accidentally due to a weighing error. For those who indicated insufflation as their usual route, typical doses ranged from 0.5mg to 50mg, with the average being 14.98mg. Eight of the insufflating users did not indicate their typical dosages. Of those who said they usually take the drug rectally, typical dosages ranged from 7mg to 33mg, with the average being 15mg. Typical doses used by those who smoke the drug ranged from 1mg to 40mg, with 12mg being the average. One of the respondents who usually smokes the drug did not give a typical dose.
Overall, users of 2C-T-2 were fairly certain that their dose measurements were accurate. 21 respondents (48.84%) said they were very certain of their dose and 18 (41.86%) said they were pretty certain. By contrast, 3 respondents (6.98%) indicated they were not very certain of their dose, and only 1 (2.33%) responded "Who knows?" to this question. When considering routes of administration, the oral users were more certain of their doses than those who snort the drug. 19 (52.78%) of the oral users were very certain of their dose, 16 (44.44%) were pretty certain, and one (2.78%) responded "Who knows?" In contrast 2 of the insufflating users (28.57%) were very certain of their dose, another 2 (28.57%) were pretty certain, and 3 (42.86%) were not very certain.
Turning to the 2C-T-7 users, there was somewhat less sureness about dosage measurement. Overall, 149 respondents (35.22%) were very certain of their dose, 180 (42.55%) were pretty certain, 62 (14.66%) were not very certain, 31 (7.33%) responded "Who knows?" and 1 person (0.24%) did not respond to the question. As with 2C-T-2, when the route of administration is taken into consideration, the picture changes sharply. Of those who usually take 2C-T-7 orally, 124 (43.06%) were very certain of their dose, 115 (39.93%) were pretty certain, 30 (10.42%) were not very certain, and 19 (6.60%) were very unsure. Of those who usually snort the drug, 21 (17.80%) were very certain of their dose, 57 (48.31%) were pretty certain, 30 (25.42%) were not very certain, and 10 (8.47%) were not certain at all. Of the rectal users, 1 (20%) was very certain of dosage accuracy, 2 (40%) were pretty certain, and another 2 (40%) were not very certain. Finally, out of those who normally smoke their 2C-T-7, 3 (25.00%) were very certain of their dose, 6 (50%) were pretty certain, 2 (16.67%) responded "Who knows?" and 1 (8.33%) did not answer this question.
The 2C-T-2 users indicated that they had used the drug between 1 and 20 times, with the average being 3.69 times. Users were asked to give the month and year of the first time they had taken it and the last time they had taken it. Elapsed time between the two dates ranged from none in the case of one-time users to two and a half years, with the average being around five months.
The 2C-T-7 users responded that they had taken the drug between 1 and 200 times, with the average being 4.78 times. One respondent did not respond to this question. Elapsed time between first and last uses ranged from none to four years, with the average being around two and a half months. Five respondents did not indicate the timespan of their use.
In the case of the user who had taken 2C-T-7 200 times, it should be pointed out that he was not using it as a psychedelic but rather as a nootropic. The respondent was a 43 year old male who said that he had "ingested almost 2 grams of 2CT7 over a 7 month period," taking "a daily +1 museum dosage of 5-10mg." No tolerance was noticed. He said "I found it to be one of the most powerful cognition enhancers I've ever encountered," but mentioned that "it was difficult to stop taking 2CT7 and I used a SSRI to regain seratonin balance." Discussing the long term effects this has had on him, he says "the introspective and emotionally beneficial aspects of 2CT7 have allowed me to develop and appreciate my relationships with people. 2CT7 has also helped to remove personal obstacles that have prohibited progress in my life."
When asked about frequency of use, 1 (2.33%) of the 2C-T-2 users indicated weekly use, 9 (20.93%) indicated they used it two to three times per month, 2 (4.65%) indicated they took it monthly, 5 (11.63%) said they took it every two months, 5 (11.63%) that they took it twice per year, and 13 (30.23%) that they took it yearly or less. 5 respondents (11.63%) did not respond to the question.
Turning to the 2C-T-7 users, 16 (3.78%) indicated that they had used it more than once a week. 33 (7.80%) indicated that they used it weekly. 77 (18.20%) said they used it two to three times per month. 84 (19.86%) indicated monthly use. 32 (7.57%) said they used it every two months. 27 (6.38%) replied that they used it twice per year. 102 (24.11%) said they used it yearly or less. 36 (8.51%) did not answer this question.
Most of the 2C-T-2 users indicated a desire to repeat the experience. Overall, 24 (55.81%) of them said they would repeat it at the same dose. 11 (25.58%) said they would like to take a higher dose. 1 (2.33%) indicated a desire to repeat the experience, but at a lower dose. Only 3 (6.98%) did not want to repeat the experience, and 4 (9.30%) were undecided. When taking routes of consumption into consideration, the picture changes. Of those who used it orally, 22 (61.11%) said they would repeat it at the same dose. 7 (19.44%) expressed a desire to take more, 1 (2.78%) said they would take less. 3 (8.33%) did not want to repeat the experience, and another 3 (8.33%) were unsure. Out of those who snort it, 2 (28.57%) would repeat it at the same dose, 4 (57.14%) wanted to try a larger dose, and 1 (14.29%) was unsure about repeating the experience. When asked why they would choose not to take 2C-T-2 again, 6 people referred to the side effects, and one person said he simply found it not up to his expectations, preferring other of the sulfur-containing phenethylamines.
Overall, the 2C-T-7 seemed slightly more eager to repeat the experience. 203 (47.99%) said they would repeat it at the same dose, 126 (29.79%) wanted to take more, and 22 (5.20%) would repeat it but at a lower dose. 21 (4.96%) said they did not want to take it again, and 40 (9.46%) were undecided. 11 respondents (2.60%) did not answer this question. Again, routes of administration were a big factor. Of the oral users, 129 (44.79%) said they would like to take it again at the same dose, 97 (33.68%) would like to take more, and 13 (4.51%) would like to try a smaller dose. 10 (3.47%) said they did not want to take it again, and 29 (10.07%) were unsure if they would repeat it. 10 (3.47%) of the oral users did not answer this question. Of those who snort the drug, 66 (55.93%) expressed an interest in taking it again at the same dose, 22 (18.64%) would like to try a higher dose, and 8 (6.78%) would repeat it at a lower dose. 11 (9.32%) were not interested in doing it again, 10 (8.47%) were uncertain, and 1 (0.84%) did not answer this question. 4 (80%) of the rectal users said they would take it again at the same dose, and 1 (20%) would take a higher dose. Of the smokers, 4 (3.33%) would repeat it at the same dose, 6 (50.00%) would like to try a higher dose, 1 (8.33%) would repeat at a lower dose, and 1 (8.33%) was undecided.
The 2C-T-7 users had a wider range of reasons for not wishing to use it again. Eleven people indicated that they found 2C-T-7 weak or uninteresting, or just preferred other drugs. Around 20 indicated that the side effects outweighed the positive effects for them. Eight people remarked that they had tried snorting it and that the pain of that experience was enough to put them off. Six people made comments about the comedown or aftereffects being unpleasant. Nine people said they found the trip too intense for their tastes. Five people said they wanted to see more research done, or had concerns about the drug's safety. Other reasons given included the length of the effects, price, or inconsistent effects.
Both drugs produced a range of physical side effects. Out of all the 2C-T-2 users, 8 (18.60%) reported the side effects were barely noticable. 11 (25.58%) found them to be mild and of short duration. 10 (23.26%) found them short but distracting, and 5 (11.63%) found them to be short but severe. 3 users (6.98%) found the side effects lasted a long time but were mild. 5 (11.63%) found them long and distracting. 1 person (2.33%) did not respond to this question. When looking only at users who take the drug orally, 4 (11.11%) found the side effects were barely noticable. 10 (27.78%) found that the side effects were short and mild, 9 (25.00%) found them to be short but distracting, 5 (13.89%) found them short and severe, 3 (8.33%) reported mild but long lasting side effects, and 4 (11.11%) found them long and distracting. 1 of the oral users (2.78%) did not respond. Of the insufflators, 4 (57.14%) found the side effects barely noticable. 1 person (14.29%) found them short and mild, 1 (14.29%) found them short and distracting, and 1 (14.29%) found them long and distracting. I suspect these figures may be highly unreliable, as the sample size of people who snort 2C-T-2 is only 7 individuals. Given a larger sample size I believe that the side effects would be more pronounced for insufflation than for oral use, as is the case with 2C-T-7.
Out of all the 2C-T-7 users, 62 (14.66%) found the side effects to be barely noticable. 121 (28.61%) found the side effects to be short and mild. 105 (24.82%) found them to be short and distracting. 34 (8.04%) found the side effects to be short but severe. 53 respondents (12.53%) found the side effects mild but long lasting. 29 (6.86%) found them to be long and distracting. 8 (2.60%) found the side effects to be long lasting and severe. 11 people (2.60%) did not indicate the level of side effects intensity. When comparing different routes of consumption, there are some rather big differences. Oral administration seems to have the mildest level of side effects, with 49 people (17.01%) reporting them as barely noticable. 87 respondents (30.21%) reported the side effects as short and mild. 66 (22.92%) said the side effects were distracting but short, and 18 (6.25%) said they were short but severe. 33 people (11.46%) said the side effects were long and mild, 20 (6.94%) said they were long and distracting, and 6 (2.08%) found them long and severe. 9 (3.13%) of the oral users did not rate the intensity of side effects. People who snort 2C-T-7 had a significantly worse time. 12 (10.17%) found them to be barely noticable. 28 (23.73%) found the side effects short but mild. 33 (27.97%) found them to be short and distracting, and 15 (12.71%) found them to be short and severe. 17 people (14.41%) found the side effects to be long but mild, 9 (7.63%) found them long and distracting, and 2 (1.69%) found them to be long and severe. 2 (1.69%) of the insufflators did not answer this question. Of the rectal users, 2 (40%) found the side effects to be short and mild, 2 (40%) found them short and distracting, and 1 (20%) found them long and mild. Of those who smoke 2C-T-7, 1 (8.33%) said the side effects were barely noticable. 4 (33.33%) found them short and mild, 4 (33.33%) said they were short and distracting, 1 (8.33%) said the side effects were short but severe, and 2 (16.67%) found them long but mild.
Nausea was the most common side effect of 2C-T-2, being reported by 26 (60.47%) of all users. Broken down by route, 23 (63.89%) of oral users and 3 (42.86%) of insufflating users reported nausea. Nausea was also the most common side effect for 2C-T-7, with 265 (62.65%) of all users reporting it. Broken down by route, 180 (62.50%) of oral users, 76 (64.41%) of insufflating users, 3 (60%) of rectal users and 6 (50%) of smokers experienced nausea.
Vomiting was reported by 10 (23.26%) of all 2C-T-2 users. By route, 8 (22.22%) of the oral and 2 (28.57%) of the insufflating users reported that they threw up. 2C-T-7 gave somewhat worse results, with 129 (30.50%) of all users vomiting. By route, oral users fared much better, with 77 (26.74%) throwing up, compared to 45 (38.14%) of insufflating users, 2 (40.00%) of rectal users, and 5 (41.67%) of the smokers.
For both drugs, muscle tension was the second most common side effect. Of all 2C-T-2 users, 14 (32.56%) experienced it. By route, 12 (33.33%) of oral users and 2 (28.57%) of insufflating users reported muscle tension. Again, 2C-T-7 gave noticably worse results, with 197 (46.57%) of all users reporting muscle tension. By route, 141 (48.96%) of oral users, 47 (39.83%) of insufflating users, 3 (60%) of rectal users, and 6 (50%) of smokers reported muscle tension. Many people pointed out that this muscle tension was focused in the neck and shoulders. A few people indicated it occurred primarily during the early part of the trip.
Out of all 2C-T-2 users, 8 (18.60%) reported diarrhea. Of the oral users, 7 (19.44%) reported diarrhea, as did 1 (14.29%) of the insufflating users. For 2C-T-7 users this seemed to be less common, with only 26 (6.15%) of all users reporting diarrhea. By route, 18 (6.25%) of oral users, 5 (4.24%) of insufflating users, and 3 (25%) of 2C-T-7 smokers reported diarrhea.
Tachycardia was reported by 7 (16.28%) of all 2C-T-2 users - all of whom had taken it orally, making the percentage of oral users reporting it 19.44%. For 2C-T-7, 92 (21.75%) of all users experienced tachycardia. Broken down by route, 60 (20.83%) of oral users, 29 (24.57%) of insufflating users, and 3 (25%) of smokers reported tachycardia.
Hypertension was reported by 1 2C-T-2 user, who took it orally, making the percentage of all users experiencing this effect 2.33%, or 2.78% of oral users. Again, 2C-T-7 did somewhat worse, with 25 (5.91%) of all 2C-T-7 users reporting hypertension. By route, 16 (5.55%) of oral users, 8 (6.78%) of insufflating users, and 1 (8.33%) of smokers reporting it.
Dehydration was reported by 7 (16.28%) of 2C-T-2 users. Of those taking it orally, 6 (16.67%) reported dehydration, as did 1 (14.29%) of the insufflating users. 2C-T-7 gave similar results, with 76 (17.96%) of respondents reporting dehydration. By route, 53 (18.40%) of oral users, 20 (16.95%) of insufflating users, and 3 (25%) of smokers reported dehydration.
Headaches were fairly uncommon for 2C-T-2 users, with 4 (9.30%) users reporting them. These users all took it orally, making the occurrence of headaches with oral use 11.11%. Here, 2C-T-7 gave dramatically worse results. 135 (31.91%) of 2C-T-7 users reported headaches. By route, 92 (31.94%) of oral users, 36 (30.51%) of insufflating users, 2 (40%) of rectal users, and 5 (41.67%) of smokers got headaches. Several people commented that the headache seemed to come most often near the end of the experience, and some felt they may be due to dehydration. One person described the headache as "brain-freezesque" feeling. Another said that the headache was accompanied by a very intense buzzing pressure in the sides of his head.
Both drugs also caused various other side effects.
Of all 2C-T-2 users, 7 (16.28%) - all oral users, making up 19.44% of that group - reported other side effects. Side effects reported included a stomach ache, nasal congestion (in someone who took the drug orally), and a tingling pins-and-needles sensation in the extremities. One person reported feeling an unusual sensual arousal without any apparent external cause. One person reported confusion.
With 2C-T-7, 118 (27.90%) of all users reported other side effects. By route, 72 (25%) of oral users, 42 (35.59%) of insufflating users, 1 (20%) of rectal users and 3 (25%) of smokers reported miscellaneous side effects.
Most commonly reported were various body temperature related effects. People reported feeling cold, while others reported feeling hot. Some reported alternating sensations of hot and cold. One person said they could not tell if they were hot or cold. Several people reported an increase in sweating - one person described it as "extreme sweating." It seems possible that these temperature effects are perceived rather than actual, however. One person who felt feverish got out a thermometer and discovered that they had a normal 98.6° Farenheit temperature.
In addition to nausea, 2C-T-7 users reported other gastrointestinal side effects. Two people reported stomach cramps. A few reported symptoms of gas, including belching and flatulence. As noted earlier, one person felt the nausea induced by this drug is caused at least in part by gas. One person reported heartburn. One reported indigestion. Another reported consistently getting constipation for a day and a half every time he used it. One other person wrote that he experienced a "reduction in sphincter retention ability."
Four people reported tremors, combined with a loss of manual dexterity in one case. Another person reported muscle spasms in the extremities in the initial phase of the experience. One person reported an eye twitch. Trisma, or jaw clenching, was reported by several people. One reported joint pain. Some people experience confusion or delirium with large doses of 2C-T-7. Sensory overload was also mentioned with large doses. Some people reported periods of dizziness or loss of balance. One person reported hearing rubbing noises in the ears, another reported a temporary reduction in hearing ability. One person reported decreased salivation, another reported increased salivation. One individual who had taken it orally reported nasal congestion. One person reported persistent dry eyes. One reported a numbness in the right side of their body. Another mentioned a persistent feeling of the need to urinate. One person reported extreme sexual arousal and desire. Another reported trouble ejaculating, but speculated that could be due to some MDMA he had also taken. One person reported heart palpitations. One remarked on an amplified awareness of pains and itches. One person felt irritable. One person reported a pins-and-needles tingle in the extremities. One person who snorted what he called "an idiotic dose" of 20 to 26mg reported that he passed out.
When asked whether the level of side effects had changed with repeated use of the drugs, users of both drugs gave similar answers. 13 (30.23%) of 2C-T-2 users reported no change, 1 (2.33%) reported an increase, 4 (9.30%) reported a decrease, and 4 (9.30%) reported that the level of side effects varied from experience to experience. 21 users did not respond, either because they have not used 2C-T-2 more than once or because they simply chose not to answer. Of 2C-T-7 users, 136 (32.15%) reported no change in the level of side effects, 10 (2.36%) reported an increase, 51 (12.06%) reported a decrease, and 57 (13.48%) reported that the level of side effects is variable. 169 (39.95%) of the 2C-T-7 users did not answer this question.
People tried a variety of things in attempts to prevent or treat the side effects they experienced. Both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 users tried many of the same things, so responses for both drugs will be summarized together.
Some approaches involved dietary changes. Fasting prior to taking the drugs was reported to help for the nausea. One person suggested not eating, but drinking plenty of water to prevent dry heaves. Other suggested a light snack helped prevent side effects. The survey included a question which asked respondents to indicate whether they had eaten before taking the drugs, but due to a technical glitch this question did not appear on the survey for a few days, and thus was not asked of all participants. Of the 2C-T-2 users, 30 were asked this question. Out of these 30, 11 (36.67%) took the drug on an empty stomach, and 19 (63.33%) took it after a light meal. Out of the 2C-T-7 users, 326 were asked this question. Of those, 152 (46.63%) took the drug on an empty stomach, 138 (42.33%) took it after a light meal, 29 (8.90%) took it after a heavy meal, and 7 (2.15%) did not respond to the question.
Of those who took 2C-T-2 on an empty stomach, 2 (18.18%) reported the side effects of the drug were barely noticable. 3 (27.27%) found the side effects short and mild. 4 (36.36%) found them short but distracting. 1 (9.09%) found them long and distracting. 1 (9.09%) did not specify the intensity of side effects. Out of the people who took 2C-T-2 after a light meal, 5 (26.32%) found the side effects to be barely noticable. 6 (31.58%) found them short and mild. 3 (15.79%) found them to be short but distracting. 1 (5.26%) found them short but severe. 2 (10.53%) found them long but mild, and 2 (10.53%) found them long and distracting. Due to the small sample size, these numbers are probably not very useful.
A clearer picture of the relation between an empty stomach and intensity of side effects can be seen with the 2C-T-7 responses, and it seems that the less food the user has in their stomach, the milder the side effects will be. Of those who took 2C-T-7 on an empty stomach, 23 (15.13%) reported the side effects were barely noticable. 49 (32.24%) reported they were short and mild. 36 (23.68%) reported short but distracting side effects, 11 (7.24%) reported short but severe side effects, 19 (12.50%) reported long but mild side effects, 8 (5.26%) reported long and distracting side effects, and 6 (3.95%) did not indicate the level of side effects they experienced. Those who took 2C-T-7 after a light meal fared a little worse, with 21 (15.22%) reporting the side effects as barely noticable, 35 (25.36%) reporting them as short and mild, 41 (29.71%) reporting short but distracting side effects, 11 (7.97%) reporting short but severe side effects, 19 (13.77%) reporting them as long but mild, 4 (2.90%) long and distracting, and 5 (3.62%) as long and severe. 2 (1.45%) did not indicate the intensity of side effects. The people who took 2C-T-7 after a heavy meal did significantly worse. Only 2 (6.90%) reported the side effects were barely noticable. 11 (37.93%) said the side effects were short but mild. Short but distracting side effects were reported by 3 (10.34%) of them, as were short and severe side effects and long mild side effects. Long and distracting side effects were reported by 6 (20.70%) of them. 1 (3.45%) did not indicate the level of side effects experienced.
Other approaches to reducing side effects involved various techniques such as deep breathing and other relaxation methods. Going for walks was recommended by one user for both nausea and muscle tension. Taking the drug in divided doses spaced out over an hour or so was recommended by some. One user wisely suggested simply taking low enough doses to get the consciousness altering effects but without the full blown side effects, sacrificing intensity for comfort.
Many users reported using other substances to treat side effects. Marijuana was used widely to treat nausea and muscle tension as well as to relax and enhance the experience. GHB, opiates, and benzodiazepines such as Valium and Xanax were also used to try and reduce muscle tension and anxiety - all with fairly good results, except for two users who reported that opiates increased their nausea. One person reported trying Gravol, an anti-nausea medication, with no success. One user tried Pepto Bismol and reported that it "works wonders." Another tried a mixture of baking soda and water, saying it helped calm the stomach for some time. One user who reported excessive nasal congestion said that vapor rub worked. Magnesium supplements were taken by one user to treat muscle tension. One person remarked that the nausea seemed to be caused in part by gas, and tried treating it with Tagamet - successfully.
People mixed a wide range of drugs with 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7, for purposes ranging from medical need, to remedies or preventatives for the side effects of the drug, to enhancing or modifying the trip, to trying to sleep afterwards. Most people made no remarks about the effects the combination produced, if any. The few who did made only minor comments. In all, there were no dangerous reactions. Some who tried mixing different psychedelics reported the effects as overwhelming and frightening. Some found that alcohol and opiates increased their nausea.
2C-T-2 users tried combining the drug with a handful of other psychedelics, including 2C-T-7, 2C-B, 5-MeO-DMT, DMT, DOB, DPT, LSD, MDMA, mescaline, and psilocybin-containing mushrooms. Some tried mixing it with ketamine. Some reported using nitrous oxide during the trip. The piperazines BZP and TFMPP were combined with 2C-T-2. Cannabis was smoked during the trip. Sedative drugs tried with 2C-T-2 were alcohol, blue lotus (Nymphaea caerulea), clonazepam (Klonopin), GHB and GBL, and opium. Prescription drugs used by 2C-T-2 users were Claritin-D (containing pseudoephedrine and loratadine), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), pemoline (Cylert), sertraline (Zoloft) and venlafaxine (Effexor). One respondent indicated taking St. John's wort.
2C-T-7 users listed quite a few more drugs, owing to the larger sample size of the group. The list of psychedelics taken with it is fairly extensive: 2C-T-2, 2C-B, 4-acetoxy-DIPT, 5-MeO-DIPT, 5-MeO-DMT, AMT, DIPT, DMT, DPT, LSD, MDA, MDMA, mescaline, morning glory seeds, and psilocybin-containing mushrooms. Two people tried combining it with Amanita muscaria, and several reported smoking Salvia divinorum during the trip. Both ketamine and PCP were tried with 2C-T-7. Dextromethorphan was tried by quite a few people, with mixed results. Nitrous oxide was also a very popular combination, and reportedly a very successful one. The piperazines BZP and TFMPP were combined with 2C-T-7... interestingly, it was reported that BZP seemed to reduce the side effects of the 2C-T-7. A few people tried cocaine during the trip, and others tried a handful of other stimulants including methamphetamine, methcathinone, ephedrine, as well as prescription mixed amphetamine salts (Adderal). Caffeine was reported by two people to produce noticably strong stimulant effects including tachycardia. Cannabis was used successfully by many to treat nausea, to relax, and to enhance the trip. People tried several opiates as well, including codeine, heroin, hydrocodone, opium, and oxycodone. Results were mixed, with two of the oxycodone users reporting it worsened their nausea. GHB, GBL, and 1,4-butanediol all were tried, in many cases as a treatment for tension and anxiety - for which they seemed successful. Other sedative drugs tried were alcohol, alprazolam (Xanax), and diazepam (Valium). One person tried ether, and said it "totally ruined" his trip. Two sleep aids were tried, zaleplon (Sonata) and zolpidem (Ambien) - interestingly, both of these respondents indicated getting strong visual effects from the combinations. The person who took Ambien described the effect as "very very very amazing visuals in a slowly losing consciousness sort of way." Someone tried dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) for nausea, and as mentioned before cimetidine (Tagamet) was also employed for gaseous nausea. One person tried using the nootropic piracetam to potentiate 2C-T-7 with no luck. Turning to medicinal drugs, a variety of people took various psychiatric drugs: amitryptiline (Elavil), bupropion (Wellbutrin or Zyban), busiprone (Buspar), citalopram (Celexa), fluoxetine (Prozac), nefazodone (Serzone), nortryptiline (Pamelor), paroxetine (Paxil) and trazodone. One person took mirtazapine (Remeron) and noted that he seemed to have unusually strong reactions to 2C-T-7 compared to his friends. For arthritis, Ledetrexate and azathioprine (Imuran) were listed. Several people took birth control pills, but only one specified what kind (Alesse 21). Two kinds of antibiotic were listed, minocycline and penicillin. A range of allergy and asthma medications were used, including albuterol (Ventolin), beclomethasone dipropionate (Vancenase), budesonide (Pulmicort), fexofenadine (Allegra), fluticasone (Flovent), terbutaline (Bricanyl), and theophylline. For hypertension, bisoprolol (Ziac), doxazosin (Cardura), fosinopril sodium (Monopril), and hydrochlorothiazide. For high cholesterol, atorvastatin (Lipitor). A person who gets migraines took rizatriptan (Maxalt), while another took sumatriptan (Imitrex). Two kinds of anticonvulsant were taken by respondents, divalproex sodium (Depakote) and gabapentin (Neurontin). The person who used Neurontin remarked that when he took it, it would make the effects of 2C-T-7 slower to come on than usual. For stomach disorders, the medications ranitidine (Zantac) and Donnatal (a low dose mixture of belladonna alkaloids and phenobarbital) were taken. The other two medications listed were insulin and the acne treatment isotretinoin (Accutane).
Turning to aftereffects, defined as effects occurring anywhere from the day after up to a week from use, both drugs seem to have produced similar results. Overall, 15 (34.88%) of 2C-T-2 users reported no aftereffects. 9 (20.93%) reported noticable but neutral aftereffects. 6 (13.95%) of 2C-T-2 users reported mildly positive aftereffects, and 3 (6.98%) reported very positive aftereffects. 7 (16.28%) reported mild hangovers, and only 1 (2.33%) reported a bad hangover. When looked at by route, 13 (36.11%) of oral users reported no aftereffects. 6 (16.67%) reported neutral aftereffects. 5 (13.89%) of the oral users reported mildly positive aftereffects, and 2 (8.33%) reported very positive aftereffects. 7 (19.44%) reported a mild hangover, and 1 (2.78%) reported a bad hangover. 1 (2.78%) of the oral users did not respond to this question. Turning to the users who snort 2C-T-2, 2 (28.57%) reported no aftereffects, 3 (42.86%) reported neutral aftereffects, 1 (14.29%) reported mildly positive aftereffects, and 1 (14.29%) did not answer the question.
In general, the aftereffects reported by 2C-T-2 users were similar to those from other psychedelic drugs. Six people reported feeling mentally or physically drained the next day. Three reported day-after headaches. One person reported having stomach pains for a few days, and one reported having mild gas and diarrhea when the drug was wearing off. One person reported lingering visual effects. Four people mentioned feelings of well being and mental clarity. One person reported feeling emotionally imbalanced, similar to that experienced after MDMA but shorter in duration. One person reported experiencing an "undefinable emotion lingering for some time afterward, deep and possibly sad but bound to joy, best word I can come up with is soulful - aware of connection to other feeling beings yet more in touch with individuality at same time, sometimes an OK lonliness leading myself to myself for companionship."
Of all the 2C-T-7 users, 149 (35.22%) reported no aftereffects. 86 (20.33%) reported neutral aftereffects. 64 (15.13%) reported mildly positive aftereffects, and 32 (5.75%) reported very positive aftereffects. 65 (15.37%) reported mild hangovers, and 16 (3.78%) reported bad hangovers. 11 (2.60%) did not respond to the question. Broken down by routes of consumption, 107 (37.15%) of oral users reported no aftereffects, 51 (17.71%) reported neutral aftereffects, 48 (16.67%) reported mildly positive aftereffects, 18 (6.25%) reported very positive aftereffects, 45 (15.63%) reported a mild hangover, 11 (3.82%) reported a bad hangover, and 8 (2.78%) did not respond. Of those who snort 2C-T-7, 35 (29.66%) reported no aftereffects, 32 (27.12%) reported neutral aftereffects, 15 (12.71) reported mildly positive aftereffects, 12 (10.17%) reported very positive aftereffects, 17 (14.41%) reported a mild hangover, 5 (4.24%) reported a bad hangover, and 2 (1.69%) did not answer. Of the rectal users, 1 (20.00%) reported no hangover, 1 (20.00%) reported mildly positive aftereffects, 1 (20.00%) reported very positive aftereffects, and 2 (40.00%) reported a mild hangover. Finally, of those who smoke 2C-T-7, 6 (50.00%) reported no aftereffects, 3 (25.00%) reported neutral aftereffects, 1 (8.33%) reported very positive aftereffects, 1 (8.33%) reported a mild hangover, and 1 (8.33%) did not answer the question.
Aftereffects reported by 2C-T-7 users were also very typical of the aftereffects produced by most psychedelics. Many users reported feelings of being mentally or physically exhausted. Some described these effects negatively, saying they felt drained or dazed. Just as many interpreted the effects positively however, saying they felt mellow and relaxed, even blissful. Some people reported that they felt energized after using 2C-T-7. Headaches, muscle aches, and stomach aches were reported frequently, but were generally mild. Many people compared the aftereffects of 2C-T-7 to the aftereffects of MDMA or LSD. In general, the aftereffects were mild, and even many of the people reporting exhaustion said that the aftereffects were milder than what they had experienced from other drugs.
Mentally, many people reported feeling very positive following a 2C-T-7 experience. Feelings of well-being and optimism lasting for days and a lifting of depression and anxiety were reported by quite a few respondents. On the other hand, some users reported feelings of depression, anxiety and paranoia following a 2C-T-7 trip. Many people reported feeling intellectually slowed the day after using 2C-T-7. Memory lapses, disorientation, mild confusion, and an inability to concentrate were reported to last for a day or two. Interestingly, a few people reported the opposite, with one person noticing that they felt their vocabulary increased, and that they were less likely to hesitate and say things such as "erm..." between words.
Lingering visual effects were reported by quite a few 2C-T-7 users. Increased perceptions of color and detail, minor distortions such as objects flickering or moving, and increased sensitivity to light were reported to last for up to several days by some people. In general, these effects were mild and in many cases considered a positive aftereffect.
One woman wrote that her mentrual cycle was thrown off after using 2C-T-7, but pointed out that she had used the drug at the Burning Man Festival, and that her period could also have been affected by both the harsh desert environment and other drugs she took at the festival. One other person wrote that two women he had taken 2C-T-7 had their periods thrown off as well.
When asked whether the level of aftereffects had changed with repeated use, 15 (34.88%) of 2C-T-2 users said it had not, 3 (6.98%) reported an increase, 2 (4.65%) reported a decrease, 3 (6.98%) reported that the level of aftereffects was variable, and 20 (46.51%) did not answer, either because they had not used 2C-T-2 more than once or did not choose to answer. With 2C-T-7, 166 (39.24%) reported no change in the level of aftereffects, 9 (2.13%) reported an increase, 23 (5.44%) reported a decrease, 50 (11.82%) reported aftereffects as being variable, and 175 (41.37%) did not respond.
A few users mentioned things they had tried to reduce aftereffects. These included drinking sugary fruit juices toward the end of the trip, taking aspirin the next day, and taking the serotonin precursor 5-HTP.
When asked if the experience had changed with repeated use, 15 (34.88%) of the 2C-T-2 users reported that quality of the experience remained the same. 4 (9.30%) thought the quality increased with repeated use. 6 (13.95%) said that quality varied from experience to experience. 18 (41.86%) did not respond to this question, either because they had not used 2C-T-2 multiple times, or simply because they didn't feel like answering the question. Of the 2C-T-7 users, 100 (23.64%) felt that there was no change in quality, 58 (13.71%) felt the quality had increased, 13 (3.07%) felt it had decreased, and 101 (23.88%) thought it varied from experience to experience. 151 (35.70%) of the 2C-T-7 users did not respond to this question.
Finally, when asked how they felt these drugs had affected them in
the long term, defined as effects lasting at least a week after use, 15
(34.88%) of the 2C-T-2 users felt the drug had no long term effect on
them, 8 (18.60%) felt that they had received psychological or spiritual
benefit from using it, and 20 (46.51%) did not answer the question. Of
the 2C-T-7 users, 127 (30.02%) felt there were no long term effects from
their use, 125 (29.55%) felt they had benefitted from the drug, 9 (2.13%)
felt they had been psychologically or spiritually harmed by it, and only 6
(1.42%) felt they had been harmed in a physical organic way. 156 (36.88%)
of the 2C-T-7 users did not answer this question. It is possible that the
high percentages of users who did not answer this question may reflect
the fact that many users have only used the drug for a few times over a
short period, and perhaps they felt it was too early to tell what the
lasting effects are. Of course, this is purely conjecture.
2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 are phenethylamine psychedelics with effects similar to mescaline and 2C-B. The effects of the psychedelic drugs are notoriously difficult to describe. While most produce at least some objectively measurable effects, such as pupil dilation or increased heart rate, the primary effects of the drug are in the mind and are therefore extremely subjective. People who have experienced these drugs agree that the mental changes produced are so far out of the ordinary range of human consciousness that they are impossible to accurately describe. It might be comparable to trying to explain music to a person born deaf.
Psychedelic drugs do not all produce identical effects, but they do generally produce similar effects. Each drug produces different variations on a theme. Not surprisingly, describing the differences between them is nearly as difficult as explaining what these drugs do in the first place. To extend the previous analogy, trying to describe the differences between mescaline and 2C-T-2 to a person who has only used mescaline is something like trying to explain Bach to a person who has only ever heard Miles Davis. Trying to explain these same differences to a person who has never used a psychedelic drug would be as if trying to explain the differences between zydeco and techno to a deaf person.
I will not try to explain the subjective effects of either psychedelics in general or of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 specifically in great detail. Instead, I have selected quotes from a wide range of first hand reports written by users and collected them as appendices to this paper. I feel that these quotes do a much better job of conveying some picture of the range of effects these drugs can produce than any attempt at reducing them to measurable symptoms could.
This being said, a few generalities can be stated.
2C-T-2 produces effects which develop over the course of one to two hours after oral ingestion, and which last for approximately six to eight hours. When insufflated, the effects develop much faster, over the course of five to thirty minutes, and the effects wear off much sooner, approximately three to four hours after ingestion.
2C-T-7 likewise develops over several hours when used orally, taking up to three hours in some cases to reach full effects. The duration of the experience is much longer than with 2C-T-2, lasting from eight to fifteen hours. Insufflated, the effects come on rapidly, as with 2C-T-2. The trip is also much shorter, lasting from four to eight hours.
Both drugs produce strong visual effects for most people. Qualitatively the visuals are often compared to those produced by mescaline or 2C-B. Among people who have tried both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7, there is some division as to which of the two produces more powerful visual effects. The visual effects of both are described as being very similar, but not exactly identical. One warning: in the case of 2C-T-7, there have been reports that with extremely high doses, the visual effects can become so strong that it becomes virtually impossible for users to make sense of their surroundings. While this has not been reported in any published 2C-T-2 reports, it seems likely it could happen with the proper dose. This should be taken into account when choosing a setting for taking the drug, and a sober observer is recommended for large dose experiences.
The closed eye imagery produced by these drugs is often described as being stunningly realistic, and often accompanied by a feeling of being physically in the scene. Some users have observed that the closed eye imagery from 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 tends to be more coherent than the imagery from drugs like LSD. Rather than the rapid-fire abstract or symbolic imagery of tryptamines, the images from these phenethylamines tend to form scenes which often have coherent themes or event sequences.
Mentally, many users describe their states of mind as being very lucid. Users with past experiences taking tryptamine psychedelics such as LSD or psilocybin point out this lucidity as being in sharp contrast to their experience with tryptamines. Many users report feeling an unusual emotional openness with themselves and with others, an effect which is often compared with MDMA. Many people describe being able to examine their emotions and their lives with a very objective and detached point of view, which they claim allows them to be honest with themselves and confront things they normally avoid thinking about. Many other typical psychedelic mental effects are reported, including negative ones. Anxiety, paranoia, and full blown panic attacks can occur. Pre-existing negative emotions can be amplified. Extreme feelings of time dilation are commonly reported with both drugs. In general, the mental effects are similar to those of mescaline or 2C-B.
In very high doses, both drugs can cause delirious states in which the user loses touch with reality and may not be aware of their actions. This seems particularly true of 2C-T-7, and there are numerous reports of delirious states, especially when the drug is snorted. There is at least one published report of a delirious state from a large oral dose of 2C-T-2, however.
Physically, 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 produce a range of effects. Some of these are pleasant or neutral, while others are uncomfortable and are therefore labelled as side effects. For a more detailed analysis of the frequency of side effects, refer to the analysis of my user survey results found earlier in this paper, as well as the summaries of the research done by Stolaroff, Wells, and Hardison.
Many people report positive physical sensations, including a warm glowing feeling starting in the chest and spreading out through the body. Reports of dramatically increased limberness are common, particularly with 2C-T-7. Enhancement of all five senses is reported very frequently.
The most commonly reported unpleasant effects of these drugs are nausea and occasionally vomiting. Around sixty percent of survey respondents for both drugs reported nausea, with slightly more 2C-T-7 users reporting nausea than 2C-T-2 users. About twenty-three percent of 2C-T-2 users reported vomiting, as did around thirty percent of 2C-T-7 users. Stolaroff and Wells got better results, with only around thirty-three percent of the 2C-T-2 subjects and thirty-eight percent of the 2C-T-7 subjects reporting nausea, and about eighteen percent of the 2C-T-2 subjects and twenty-five percent of the 2C-T-7 subjects vomiting. Their subjects, regardless of which drug was taken, often mentioned that they felt the nausea was caused by psychological factors. They reported knowing what was making them feel ill, and that the nausea went away once they confronted the issues. Most reports indicate that the nausea usually occurs in the early stages of the experience, that it passes quickly, and that it is generally mild and does not detract significantly from the value of the trip. It can be severe or long lasting in some cases however, particularly with large doses. In addition to nausea and vomiting, other minor digestive discomforts were reported, including diarrhea and gas.
Muscle tension was reported by about a third of 2C-T-2 users and nearly half of 2C-T-7 users, based on both my surveys and the experiments done by Stolaroff and Wells. Often, this tension is focused on the shoulders and neck muscles. In addition, Stolaroff and Wells point out that about thirteen percent of their 2C-T-7 subjects reported muscle spasms or tremors.
2C-T-7 produced headaches for nearly a third of users responding to my user surveys. In contrast, only around ten percent of 2C-T-2 users reported headaches. Many first hand reports from 2C-T-7 users also mention headaches, and users often point out that these headaches tend to occur during the tail end of the trip.
Increased heartbeat and raised blood pressure are common with both drugs, as with virtually all psychedelic drugs. Although much of this is probably due to psychological factors such as anxiety, it is very likely that 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 do have stimulant properties similar to mescaline.
It is crucial to remember that all drugs are capable of producing unexpected results in some percentage of the population. All people have different biochemistries, and there is always the possibility that someone may be allergic to a given drug, or may have some enzymatic peculiarity which causes abnormal metabolism of certain drugs. Anybody considering trying a new drug must take this into account and start with very low doses and work up gradually until they are sure they do not have any unusual response to the drug. As many have said regarding drugs, "your mileage may vary."
Aftereffects of both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 are typical of psychedelic drugs in general. Aftereffects from both drugs are generally mild, and often are described as positive.
Most commonly reported are feelings of being mentally and physically exhausted. This is not necessarily felt to be bad, and is often described as a lazy but pleasant afterglow rather than a hangover. People report feeling optimistic, euphoric and energized following trips with 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. In some cases, people report feeling mental sluggishness following use, including impaired memory recall (interestingly, there are several mentions of temporary aphasia, or difficulty in remembering some words when speaking to someone), mild confusion or disorientation, and an inability to concentrate. The mental aftereffects of both drugs are often compared to LSD and especially MDMA, although many users report that the negative aftereffects are much milder than from MDMA.
Headaches, muscle aches, and occasional stomach problems have been reported. In general, these are mild and are easily cured with relaxation and a good revitalizing meal. Other than tiredness, both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 seem to produce little in the way of physical aftereffects.
The appropriate dosages and routes of administration for 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 are a matter which is open to much discussion. In addition, accurate measurement of doses is an issue of major importance.
Alexander Shulgin recommends a dose of 12 to 25mg orally for 2C-T-2. The Internet drug archive Erowid lists 5mg as a threshold dose, 10 to 15mg as a light dose, 16 to 32mg as a typical dose, and 32 to 48mg as a strong dose - all for oral use. Respondents to my 2C-T-2 usage survey used oral doses ranging from 5 to 40mg, with the average being approximately 20mg. Some respondents had tried snorting 2C-T-2, with dosages ranging from 2.5 to 35mg, with the average being approximately 13mg.
Dosages for 2C-T-7 seem to be much more variable. Shulgin recommends a dosage of 10 to 30mg orally, adding that "the range is intentionally extended on the lower side to include 10 milligrams, as there have been numerous people who have found 10 or so milligrams to be quite adequate for their tastes." Erowid lists 3 to 5mg as threshold, 10 to 20mg as light, 15 to 30mg as typical, 20 to 50mg as strong, and 40 to 60mg as heavy doses for oral use. For insufflation, 1 to 3mg is given as a threshold dose, 2 to 8mg as a light dose, 5 to 10mg as a typical dose, 10 to 15mg as a strong dose, and 10 to 25mg as a heavy dose. Respondents to the 2C-T-7 survey indicated a much wider range in dosage. For oral use, dosages ranged from 1 to 125mg, with approximately 27mg being average. For insufflation, dosages ranged from 0.5mg to 50mg, with the average being approximately 15mg. Rectal users listed dosages from 7 to 33mg, with 15mg being average. Those who smoke 2C-T-7 listed dosages from 1 to 40mg, with 12mg being the average. There is little data on dosages used for injections, but three or four reports have appeared on the Internet by people who have tried this route have listed dosages in the range of 1 to 3mg for both intramuscular and intravenous injections.
Individual sensitivities seem to vary greatly with 2C-T-7, in sharp contrast to 2C-T-2. While some people get powerful effects from 10mg orally, others report needing to take 60 or even 90mg orally to get any worthwhile effects.
Regarding routes of administration, there is much debate. Based on both the survey results and on a review of various first hand reports, oral use seems to be the best way to use either drug. People taking them orally report far fewer, milder and shorter side effects than those who snort them. Qualitatively, oral users tend to report much more positive experiences, and those who snort the drugs tend to report far more unpleasant experiences characterized by both physical and mental distress. Advocates of insufflating it often say that they use the drug that way because they require unusually large doses when taken orally, so snorting the drug is done primarily out of economical concerns. The other reasons often given for preferring insufflation over oral use are that the drug hits much faster when snorted and that the trip is shorter (primarily a concern among 2C-T-7 users). Advocates of oral use argue that the trip produced by this route is much gentler on mind and body, more serene, more productive, physically more comfortable, and safer owing both to a much less steep dose-response curve and to a smoother transition into altered consciousness, allowing the user to gradually get accustomed to the new state and preventing panic. One other argument in favor of not insufflating either is that there is the possibility of damaging the nasal passages when snorting these drugs. I personally know a young man who used 2C-T-7 by insufflation a number of times who did enough damage to his nasal passages that he had to go to the hospital and have his nose cauterized after experiencing severe nose bleeds.
There are not enough reports from people using the drugs rectally, by injection or by smoking to draw any really meaningful conclusions. For rectal use and smoking, the level of side effects appears to be in between what oral use and insufflation produce. As for taking them by injection, the few people who have discussed trying this route have not written very positive reports. It seems significant that of the 10 survey respondents who reported trying injections, not one indicated that injection was their preferred route.
Measurement of doses is a topic of very serious concern with both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. With the exception of the pressed pills sold in the Netherlands and several black market 2C-T-7 pills, both drugs are available only in the form of pure powder or crystals. Owing to the fact that both drugs are active in doses under 50mg, this presents difficulties in measuring accurate doses. Optimally, the user should have a scale accurate to 1mg. Unfortunately, scales this accurate can cost hundreds or even thousands of dollars - far beyond the range of most freelance researchers or recreational users. Because of this situation, various methods have been devised for measuring doses without a scale.
One of the most popular and most accurate is volumetric measurement. In this technique, a known quantity of drug is dissolved in a known volume of liquid; for example, a gram of 2C-T-2 could be dissolved in 200ml of alcohol. Doses may then be measured out by volume using an eyedropper with milliliter measurements, a graduated cylinder, or even milliliter measuring spoons. Using the previous example, 1ml of 2C-T-7 solution would contain 5mg of drug. For this method, an alcohol based solution (using vodka or grain alcohol) offers some advantages. First, the alcohol will prevent bacterial contamination. Second, alcohol evaporates easily, so it becomes possible to measure a dose volumetrically and then let it evaporate off to leave an accurately measured dose of powder. Third, anecdotal reports indicate that 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 may be somewhat more soluble in alcohol than in water. If water is used, tap water should be avoided as it contains numerous contaminants which could potentially react with the drugs - for example, chlorine can break down many chemicals. If this method is used, care must be taken to store the solution in an air tight container to prevent evaporation from altering the concentration and throwing off dosage calculations.
Some people have tried to measure doses out visually. This may be as primitive as repeatedly halving a pile into supposedly even parts, or it can be done by what is known as the graph-paper method. For the graph paper method, a sheet of graph paper is placed under a pane of clear glass. A known quantity of powder is then poured onto the glass, and formed into an even sided shape of even thickness. In theory, you will then have an equal ammount of powder covering each square on the paper. For example, if you had 100mg covering 10 squares, there will be 10mg over each square. You could then divide this up by aligning a razor with the lines on the paper and separating the drug into 10 piles each approximately containing 10mg. Unfortunately, visual measurements are not accurate enough to be safe for use with 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7. Even using the graph-paper method, differences in particle density make it impossible to ensure the same ammount of powder is on each square. The act of separating off a portion of the pile with a razor will move the powder remaining in the main pile. Visual methods such as repeated halving or the graph paper technique may be sufficient for drugs with dosages measured in the hundreds of milligrams, but for something as potent as 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7, they are simply unacceptable. A difference of 1 or 2mg can produce dramatically different results, especially for routes of administration other than oral use. There are numerous reports on the Internet from individuals who have tried visual dose measuring that have learned this the hard way after accidentally taking far larger doses than intended.
Unfortunately, no research has been done to determine the receptor affinities of either 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7. We are forced to examine related drugs and to extrapolate from that data to try and form a hypothesis as to the receptor affinity of these drugs. This is of course made harder by the fact that the mechanisms by which even well studied drugs like mescaline work are still not fully understood.
Mescaline is known to interact with only one subclass of serotonin receptors, known as the 5-HT2 receptors. This is in contrast to tryptamine psychedelics which can interact (both agonistically and antagonistically) with a number of serotonin receptor types. The highest concentration of 5-HT2 receptors is in the cerebral cortex, an area of the brain for which mescaline has been found to have a high affinity.
It is suspected that mescaline's sympathomimetic activity is due to different processes than its psychedelic properties. Some have suggested that mescaline is competitive for adrenergic receptors. There is some evidence that mescaline stimulates or competes for alpha-adrenergic receptors. No evidence has been found for beta-adrenergic receptor interaction. There is some evidence that mescaline may act via catecholamine rather than cholinergic mechanisms. Other studies suggest that mescaline blocks the release of acetylcholine.
Studies done on rat aortas have found that 2C-B is a partial agonist for both 5-HT2 and alpha-1-adrenergic receptors. In concentrations of 10(-6) M it acts as a competitive 5-HT2 antagonist, but acts as a non-competitive antagonist in concentrations of 2.8 x 10(-5) M.
ALEPH-2, the amphetamine homologue of 2C-T-2, has been studied in rats and mice. Based on the animals' performance in a memory and anxiety model known as the elevated T-maze, researchers believe that ALEPH-2 has "anxiolytic, amnestic as well as sedative and/or motor depressant actions." When tested for receptor affinity, it was found that ALEPH-2's affinity "for 5-HT2A/2C receptors ([3H]ketanserin sites) was in the nanomolar range (Ki = 173 nM), whereas for 5-HT1A, benzodiazepine sites, and GABA A receptors, the affinity was micromolar or lower."
Based on this evidence, it seems likely that the psychedelic activity of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 are due to 5-HT2 receptor interactions, as with mescaline, 2C-B and ALEPH-2. The sympathomimetic properties of these drugs are likely due to agonistic activity at alpha-1-adrenergic receptor sites. Considering the numerous reports of delirium and other anticholinergic-like effects from high doses of 2C-T-7, it seems at least possible that these drugs do have some kind of effect on the acetylcholine system. The receptor affinities of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 are definitely worthy targets for further study, especially the differences between the two.
No studies have ever been performed on the metabolism of 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7. The metabolism of the related drugs 2C-B and mescaline have been studied however, and based on this it is possible to construct hypothetical metabolic pathways for 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7.
Studies of human volunteers given mescaline have found at least 11 metabolites excreted in urine, as well as mescaline itself, which makes up 60% of the excreted material. Another 30% of the original drug is excreted as 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacetic acid. Another 5% is excreted as the metabolite N-acetyl-beta-(3,4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxy)-phenethylamine. Several other trace metabolites, including N-acetylmescaline and 3,4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxyphenethylamine, are also excreted.
Studies with animals and in vitro studies have found that mescaline undergoes oxidative deamination. There is some question as to what enzyme does this however, with some researchers suspecting monoamine oxidase, some suspecting diamine oxidase, and some suspecting both may be involved. Enzymatic N-acetylation, as well as O-demthylation of the methoxy groups have also been demonstrated, but these are minor metabolic routes in humans.
The metabolism of 2C-B (2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine) has been studied both by in vitro studies with rat livers and by analyzing urine samples from humans who had used the drug. In addition to some unchanged 2C-B, metabolites included 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenylacetic acid, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromobenzoic acid, and 2-methoxy-5-hydroxy-4-bromophenethylamine. By comparing this data to what is known about mescaline metabolism, it seems likely that 2C-B follows a similar metabolic pathway.
Extrapolating from this, it seems likely that much 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 may be excreted unchanged, with oxidative deamination being the main metabolic pathway for the remainder. This would produce 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylthiophenylacetic acid in the case of 2C-T-2, and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-propylthiophenylacetic acid in the case of 2C-T-7. Some of the drugs are also likely metabolized by other pathways such as O-demethylation or N-acetylation. One direction for future research which may prove interesting is to compare the metabolism of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. There seems to be much wider range of responses to 2C-T-7 than for 2C-T-2, as was discussed under dosage considerations. This may be indicative of some difference in the metabolism of the two drugs.
There are mixed reports regarding the tolerance forming properties of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. While some people have noticed a definite tolerance, a couple users have reported being able to use 2C-T-7 for several days in a row without any noticeable decrease in effects. One user reported taking low doses of 2C-T-7 daily for several months as a cognitive enhancer, saying that there was no noticeable tolerance. Studies done with mescaline show that tolerance develops after two to three days of daily use, and that it disappears within three to four days of the last dose. Likewise, tolerance to 2C-B has been reported if the drug is used frequently.
Cross-tolerance with other drugs has not been explored deeply. One respondent to the 2C-T-7 usage survey remarked that a 25mg dose of 2C-T-7 taken on the night of a day in which psilocybin had been taken. The respondent felt there was a strong cross-tolerance effect at work. Another survey respondent noted that a 27mg dose of 2C-T-7 taken thirty-six hours after a 20mg dose of 2C-T-2 produced no effect, indicating that there is a cross tolerance between the two.
Beyond this, we can try to extrapolate from related drugs. Mescaline has been found to produce cross-tolerance with tryptamines such as psilocybin and LSD. Mescaline also appears to be cross-tolerant with the inactive chemical 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine and the stimulant N,N-dimethylmescaline. It seems likely that cross-tolerance exists between closely related phenethylamines such as 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, 2C-B and mescaline as well.
Sadly, the limited knowledge about how 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 work makes it impossible to say for certain what the risk factors for these drugs are. We can apply a few standard contraindications for this class of drug, and it is possible to make some educated guesses about potential risks based on published experience reports and by extrapolation from related drugs. The possibility of yet unknown risk factors can not be ruled out however, and anyone considering experimenting with these drugs must keep in mind that they are sailing in largely uncharted waters.
One contraindication can be given with absolute certainty: Women who are (or suspect they may be) pregnant and nursing women should avoid all drugs not prescribed by a doctor. This applies especially to 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7, which are after all still experimental psychedelics. There are absolutely no justifiable reasons for taking such a drug when you are physiologically supporting another life. Although there have been no studies on what the risks of taking these drugs while pregnant, there have been some studies done with the related drug mescaline on human tissues in vitro. Mescaline has been found to inhibit cellular mitosis by inhibiting spindle apparatus formation in a manner similar to colchicine and colcemid, which could conceivably slow the growth of a developing embryo or fetus. It should be pointed out that studies done on the Huichol tribes of Mexico have found no significant chromosomal abnormalities among the peyote users versus the non-users, indicating that mescaline does not share the mutagenic properties of colchicine and colcemid. Mescaline has also been found to constrict blood vessels in the human placenta in a manner similar to serotonin. In lower doses, mescaline has been found to enhance serotonin-induced uterine contractions, and causes uterine contractions on its own in higher doses. Although pregnant women and children among the Huichol have routinely used peyote with no demonstrable negative health effects, it is wise to err on the side of caution and avoid all drugs during pregnancy unless there is a medical need. Also, while mescaline may be closely related to 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7, they are different drugs and what applies to one does not necessarily apply to the others.
Various standard psychedelic contraindications also certainly apply. People who have a personal or family history of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder should not use psychedelic drugs unless doing so in a therapeutic setting under the supervision of a trained psychologist or psychiatrist. These drugs can weaken reality boundaries, and could easily lead to a psychotic break or worsen an already existing psychotic state. Similarly, people with personality disorders such as multiple personalities should also avoid taking these drugs except in therapeutic settings, as psychedelics can dramatically damage ego boundaries. Individuals with various emotional disorders as well as people going through temporary emotional crises should exersise caution with psychedelic drugs. While these drugs can provide valuable insights and emotional healing, they can also drastically worsen negative emotions. It may be wise for such people to make use of a guide for the experience, whether that be a psychologist, a spiritual advisor, or simply a trusted friend who can help direct the experience into a process of release and healing. For people who have little or no prior experience with psychedelics, the presence of a guide should be considered mandatory. Even individuals who are experienced with psychedelics may wish to make use of a guide for their first time out with 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7 if their prior experiences have all been with tryptamine class drugs such as LSD or psilocybin rather than with phenethylamine class drugs, as the two families of drugs can produce very different results.
Beyond pregnancy, nursing and psychological factors, we must venture into the realm of the hypothetical. These contraindications and warnings are based on review of first hand reports from 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7 users and on extrapolation from research on mescaline. While this may be overcautious in some cases, it must be remembered that no formal scientific studies have ever been done on 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7, so extreme caution is wise.
People who have a personal or family history of seizures or convulsions should avoid 2C-T-2 and especially 2C-T-7. Quite a few first hand experience reports mention various effects such as muscular twitches and tremors, and a small percentage of users responding to my 2C-T-7 survey mentioned such symptoms. Several of the people reporting tremors stated that they seemed to originate in the legs and move upward. Several studies have found that mescaline can produce mild tremors in normal dosages. In higher dosages, these can become quite strong. A 1957 study by Pierre Deniker using 10mg/kg doses of intravenous mescaline hydrochloride found that such doses can produce rather severe tremors, but that the tremors seem to be partially under voluntary control and cease spontaneously several hours later. Chlorpromazine was found to eliminate these tremors. Studies on dogs and monkeys have found that mescaline can produce tremors as well as clonic and tonic convulsions in high doses. Although apparently harmless in healthy people, it is possible that these effects might trigger a more serious incident in people who have a convulsive disorder such as epilepsy. Again, it also can not be taken for granted that the convulsive actions of 2C-T-7 are caused by the same mechanisms as the actions of mescaline - this is purely based on extrapolation. Interestingly, mention of tremors or convulsions are conspicuously absent from the reports by 2C-T-2 users. It is unknown whether this is because nobody is experiencing these effects or simply because they are not mentioning them.
There have been three reported incidents involving convulsive symptoms from 2C-T-7 which are serious enough to cause concern, all of which were described in detail in the historical section of this paper. Of greatest concern is the death of Jake Duroy. Around ninety minutes after snorting a massive 35mg dose of 2C-T-7, Mr. Duroy began to have convulsions while simultaneously vomiting and bleeding from the nose. He soon went into cardiac arrest and died on the way to the hospital. An autopsy ruled the cause of death to be choking due to aspiration of vomit. While convulsions are a normal symptom of choking, there is also the possibility that the death was caused by an overdose of the drug itself. In studies on rats, fatal doses (LD50 = 370mg/kg intraperitoneally) of mescaline cause flexor convulsions after a period of hyperactivity, followed by respiratory arrest and cardiac arrest a few minutes later. If Mr. Duroy's death was in fact due to an overdose rather than simply choking, then this would seem to indicate that either 2C-T-7 has a dramatically lower LD50 than mescaline or that Mr. Duroy had an extreme sensitivity to the drug. The significance of the two other incidents mentioned is more problematic, as both involved head injuries. In one of the cases, the convulsions were accompanied by an apparent mild heart attack. This patient had a childhood history of abnormal heartbeat.
This leads us to the next contraindication. 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7, like any other psychedelic drugs, should not be taken by individuals with cardiovascular problems. Tachycardia was reported by 16.28% of 2C-T-2 users and by 21.75% of 2C-T-7 users responding to my surveys. One person with premature ventricular contractions had an unusual episode which may have some connection using 2C-T-7. It is likely that this situation is connected to use of beta-blocker drugs, so it is summarized further on in the section on drug interactions. Hypertension was reported by 2.33% of 2C-T-2 users and 5.91% of 2C-T-7 users, although these numbers are probably insignificant since its unlikely many people had access to blood pressure monitors during their trips. Headaches were reported by 9.3% of 2C-T-2 users and by 31.91% of 2C-T-7 users, and it is possible that this is indicative of raised blood pressure, although dehydration and other factors could also account for the headaches. Turning once again to a related drug, mescaline has been found to increase blood pressure. Mescaline may increase heart rate, but can also decrease heart rate in higher doses. Mescaline can cause heart palpitations, and one 2C-T-7 survey respondent did mention having heart palpitations as well. Mescaline has also been found to be a vasoconstrictor in higher doses.
One final caution is based entirely on extrapolation from mescaline. Mescaline has been shown to affect blood sugar levels. One study involved large intravenous doses (10mg/ml), and resulted in an average increase in blood sugar of 35.1%, reaching a maximum at around one hour after injection and returning to normal in two to four hours. Interestingly, a study performed on rats using much higher doses (30 to 100mg/kg) found that mescaline sharply lowered blood sugar levels. The rat study also found evidence that insulin lowered the LD50 of mescaline. While these doses involve unusually high doses of a different drug, diabetics may wish to pay extra attention to their blood sugar levels when using 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7. There was one 2C-T-7 survey respondent who mentioned having insulin dependent diabetes, and he reported no problems.
Drug interactions are always a complex issue, as the actions of each drug combine with each other and with the biochemical idiosyncrasies of the user. The results can be unpredictable, and with every drug added to the mix, the unpredictability of the results increases. In the cases of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7, this is complicated even further by the fact that their pharmacologies are still largely theoretical. Based on reports from users and extrapolation from closely related drugs, a few observations can be made as to how 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 may interact with other drugs.
A broad range of drugs have been combined with these two phenethylamines. In many cases, particularly with non-psychoactive medical drugs, the users have not reported any unusual reactions. There are many reports of combinations with other psychedelic drugs, where the results have been synergistic as one would expect. Combinations with other psychoactive drugs have been largely predictable; for example, combining 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7 with benzodiazepines or GHB produced anxiolytic and sedating effects. To summarize all the nuances of these interactions could easily be a paper on its own, and so I will summarize here only those interactions which are unusual or dangerous.
The beta-blocker drugs metoprolol and atenolol were both involved in an unusual reaction reported by an individual taking them for premature ventricular contractions. This person first took a dose of metoprolol to deal with some PVCs he had been having. Later, after the drug had reduced the PVCs to a negligible level, he snorted 6mg of 2C-T-7. Within 10 minutes the 2C-T-7 reached peak effects, and simultaneously he began experiencing more PVCs than he had ever had in his life. Concerned, he took a sublingual dose of metoprolol, which produced no apparent reduction in the PVCs. The next day, he was still having an unusually high level of PVCs, so he began taking atenolol. This proved no more effective than the metoprolol had been. The PVCs got progressively worse over the course of a week, reaching a point where every other heartbeat was a PVC. He became lightheaded and short of breath, almost passing out at times. This obviously greatly distressed him. He even consulted his doctor, who had him wear a halter monitor to record his EKG readings for a day. After a week since the episode began, he realized that the more atenolol he took, the worse the PVCs became. He stopped taking the atenolol and felt "80% better" within two days. Within three weeks the PVCs were almost entirely gone, and did not recur for at least two months. The significance of this and whether or not the 2C-T-7 played any role are open to speculation. Another beta-blocker, bisoprolol, was used by a 2C-T-7 survey respondent with no unusual reactions reported.
One person reported that the anticonvulsant drug gabapentin (Neurontin) seemed to delay the onset of 2C-T-7's effects.
Stimulants of various kinds seem to be potentiated by 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. Caffeine has been reported to produce noticeably strong stimulant effects when combined with 2C-T-7. Several people have reported using cocaine with 2C-T-7, with some saying that the combination produces strong stimulation, and others mentioning a powerful euphoria. Combinations of 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7 with amphetamines have been reported, with some people indicating the mix was not recommended but without going into details as to the actual effects. Benzylpiperazine, interestingly, has been reported to reduce the physical side effects of both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 by several individuals. One person, however, reported that combining 150mg of benzylpiperazine with 1.5mg 2C-T-7 (route was not specified, but presumably was insufflated) produced a frightening tachycardia, with a pulse of over 160.
Reports of combinations with dextromethorphan are mixed. Some users have reported extreme delusional states from this combination. Combinations of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 with ketamine, which has some pharmacological similarities to dextromethorphan, seems to have the opposite result. People who have tried combining ketamine with 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7, as well as the related 2C-B, report that they find it easier to remember and integrate the experience than when the ketamine taken alone.
Opiates of various kinds have been combined with both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. While in most cases the results were neutral or positive, there are at least two reports where combining oxycodone with 2C-T-7 produced significant nausea.
The prescription sleep aids zaleplon (Sonata) and zolpidem (Ambien) were each reported by single individuals to produce intensifications of 2C-T-7's visual effects.
One person reported that the tetracyclic antidepressant mirtazapine (Remeron) made him more sensitive to the effects of 2C-T-7.
It is often mentioned that combining phenethylamines such as 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 with MAO inhibitors. This is most likely an overcautious statement made out of an incomplete understanding of MAO inhibitors. There are two kinds of monoamine oxidase, MAO A and MAO B. Some MAO inhibitors are non-specific, inhibiting both kinds of MAO. Others are selective for either one or the other MAO enzyme. Secondly, MAO inhibitors can be either reversible or irreversible. The irreversible inhibitors work by chemically bonding to the enzyme, permanently destroying it and making it necessary for the body to synthesize new MAO - a process which can take weeks. Reversible MAO inhibitors do not destroy MAO, but only temporarily bind to it, producing an effect which wears off after a few hours. Not all MAO inhibitors are created equal, and they carry different levels of risk. Even chocolate contains weak MAO inhibiting chemicals. Taking this into consideration, it seems that some MAO inhibitors may be safe with 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7.
In fact, there is only one case of an adverse reaction from combining psychedelic phenethylamines in the scientific literature. In this incident, a person took the prescription irreversible, non-specific MAOI Nardil an hour after taking a dose of MDMA. Three and a half hours later, the person was admitted to an emergency room. At some point prior to visiting the emergency room, the person drank an unspecified amount of alcohol (having a blood alcohol level of 14mg per deciliter at the time of admission). Combining alcohol with Nardil is itself very dangerous. Doctors gave the patient Benadryl in an attempt to reduce symptoms of tonicity, but the treatment was ineffective. In the hospital, the patient was given care which was primarily of a supportive nature. Three hours after admission, the patient made a complete recovery.
While much of the fear of combining MAO inhibitors with phenethylamines is probably unfounded, there undoubtedly are risks. As the metabolic pathways of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 are not really known, it is impossible to know how inhibition of MAO will affect the way the body handles these drugs.
There have been two reports of combining 2C-T-7 with the MAO inhibitor deprenyl. Deprenyl is a reversible inhibitor of MAO B. The first report was posted to an Internet drug form by an individual who did not specify the doses taken of either drug, but who said that the experience lasted seventy-two hours, describing it as "tough, bearable and non-repeatable." The other is from Alexander Shulgin, who in a private discussion with me reported finding a man at the Entheobotany 2000 conference in Palenque, Mexico, who "was twitching on the grass, with severe motor problems, and who was in a state of obvious physical toxicity." After speaking with the man, it was discovered that he had combined five Blue Mystic tablets (for a total of 37.5mg of 2C-T-7) with several deprenyl pills. Shulgin suspects that deprenyl could block the metabolism of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7.
There have been no other reports of combining 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7 with MAO inhibitors, but if we examine related drugs it may be possible to draw some conclusions. The natural alkaloids harmine and harmaline, found in the ayahuasca vine and in Syrian rue seeds, are both reversible inhibitors of MAO A. Both have been combined by quite a few people with mescaline, producing potentiation. No adverse reactions have been documented. The synthetic chemical moclobemide, also a reversible MAO A inhibitor, has been combined by some people with both 2C-B and MDMA. Again, there were no negative reactions.
Piracetam has been found to potentiate the effects of mescaline. However, one person reported trying piracetam as a potentiator for 2C-T-7 and found it produced no noticeable enhancement of effects.
Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) and other phenothiazines have been found to inhibit the effects of mescaline. Not only do they inhibit mescaline's mental effects, but animal experiments have found that they offer highly effective protection against normally fatal overdoses of mescaline. The effects of mescaline can also be reversed or blocked by low doses of the 5-HT2 antagonists ritanserin and Spiperdone administered intravenously, and the drug meretran may also inhibit mescaline's mental effects. It is very likely that these drugs would similarly inhibit or reverse the effects of both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. Chlorpromazine in particular seems promising for investigation as a possible emergency room treatment, especially in cases where physical toxicity is present.
As mentioned under the section on contraindications and warnings, there is some evidence that insulin may lower the LD50 of mescaline. However, the doses used in this study (5 to 10 units per kilogram of body weight) were many times more than doses used by diabetics. It is likely such a dose would induce insulin shock, and would therefore be toxic regardless of any other drugs taken. While this is most likely irrelevant to 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 users, it may be something for researchers to investigate in the future.
In no way can this brief summary be considered conclusive. The reactions described could be abnormal, or due to factors not apparent from the documentation available. More importantly, the fact that nobody has had any unusual reactions to any given drug combination does not guarantee that it is a safe mix. Every person has a unique biochemistry, and even with the most researched and best understood drugs, the possibility of an unpredictable idiosyncratic reaction remains a real risk. Whenever trying out a new drug combination, it is recommended that you start with much lower doses of each drug than you would normally use.
Legal Status of 2C-T-2 & 2C-T-7
Being relatively new drugs, neither 2C-T-2 nor 2C-T-7 have been banned by many countries. While there may be laws in other countries which I am not aware of, it appears that 2C-T-2 is specifically illegal in either three or four countries, and 2C-T-7 in either one or two countries. Many countries have analogue drug laws, however, and in those countries 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 may be implicitly illegal. If you are unsure about the legality of either drug in your location, it would be wise to check its legal status with both local and national authorities before coming into possession of it.
In Australia, 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 are covered by the country's comparatively strict analogue drug laws. There has been at least one prosecution in which 2C-T-2 played a part. Unfortunately, my informant on this case did not have complete details. The case happened "a couple years ago," presumably sometime while 2C-T-2 was being sold by Dutch smartshops. A person in New South Wales was caught in possession of large quantities of various illegal drugs. Along with these drugs were also various more obscure drugs, including five tablets of 2C-T-2. Although the primary focus of the prosecution was on the scheduled drugs, according to my informant "it was the fact that there were obscure drugs present that nailed the import case. I don't know how much of a role 2CT2/7 played in this, but from the list of drugs they dealt with this one was probably the most obscure." I was unable to find record of this case in Australia's SCALEplus online legal database, but my informant mentions that he believes the case was heard at the Downing Centre court in Sydney.
Neither 2C-T-2 nor 2C-T-7 appear to be scheduled drugs in Canada, however it is most likely covered under the analogue drug laws. Under Canadian law, a drug analogue is defined as "a substance that, in relation to a controlled substance, has a substantially similar chemical structure." Using this definition, both drugs could be argued to be analogues of either 2C-B or mescaline. It seems that this law has been enforced at least once. According to a post made to an Internet mailing list, in October, 2000, a person placed an order with a chemical supply company in the United States for 250mg of 2C-T-7. Canadian customs seized the order and sent a notice to the purchaser saying that it had been confiscated. No further action was taken in the case.
The legal situation of 2C-T-2 in Germany has an interesting history. On October 7, 1998, the Federal Ministry for Health issued a decree titled "Zwölfte Verordnung zur Änderung Betäubungsmittel Rechtlicher Vorschriften", which placed 2C-T-2 (along with 4-MTA, mebroqualone, and two PCP analogues) under the Betäubungsmittelgesetz, Germany's drug law, by express regulation, which is equivalent to the DEA's emergency scheduling powers under United States law. This made possession, import, trade, production, and trafficking of 2C-T-2 punishable by law. This decree eventually expired, but on September 24, 1999, the Federal Ministry For Health issued the "Dreizehnten Verordnung zur Änderung Betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften," which went into effect October 10, 1999, and made 2C-T-2 illegal along with 11 other drugs. This regulation also had one year expiration, and so on September 27, 2000, yet another temporary scheduling was decreed in the "Viersehnte Betäubungsmittelrechts-Änderungsverordnung". As with the two prior decrees banning 2C-T-2, this new law also banned other drugs as well, for a total of fourteen, including the tryptamines 5-MeO-DMT and 5-MeO-DIPT. This new decree took effect October 10, 2000 and like the two prior decrees, this one also expires one year after going into effect. 2C-T-7 remains legal in Germany at the present time.
The Netherlands was the first country in which 2C-T-2 was sold commercially, and it was also the first country to make it an illegal drug. On April 12, 1999, it was declared an unregistered medicine. As such, it is in a separate legal category from scheduled drugs. Manufacture, import, sale, trade and possession of 2C-T-2 are illegal. At present, 2C-T-7 remains legal, but many feel that this is likely to change due to the fact that the government does not approve of the smartshops selling "synthetic drugs."
2C-T-2 became commercially available in Sweden in the summer of 1998, being sold in smartshops similar to those in the Netherlands. On April 1, 1999, both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7, along with MBDB, BDB, 2C-B and PMMA, were banned in Sweden. This was not done by appending these drugs to the country's normal drug laws, but by passing a new law, "Förordning (1999:58) om förbud mot vissa hälsofarliga varor," which banned the drugs as being materials dangerous to health.
In 1999, Alexander Shulgin was sent a copy of a letter from the British Home Office to several of its administrative associates which in effect placed all compounds listed in PIHKAL into Class A, Britain's equivalent of Schedule I. Whether or not this law has actually gone into effect remains the subject of some confusion, but it appears likely that both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 are illegal in the United Kingdom. Several researchers, including this author, tried for several months to obtain a complete list of banned drugs in the United Kingdom. With the exception of a few partial lists, all have failed; therefore, it can not be said for sure whether these drugs are in fact illegal in the United Kingdom.
Neither 2C-T-2 nor 2C-T-7 are specifically scheduled in the United States. This does not mean that they are legal, however. The United States has analogue drug laws. Under United States law, it must be determined on a case by case basis whether an analogue drug law violation has occurred. The prosecution must demonstrate that the material in question is substantially similar in both chemical structure and pharmacological effect to a scheduled drug, and that the defendant intended to manufacture, buy, sell, trade, or use the substance as a drug for human consumption. 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 could conceivably be prosecuted as analogues of mescaline or 2C-B. There also exist "lookalike drug" laws, under which a person who is selling any substance which is being misrepresented as a scheduled drug can be prosecuted as if actually selling the drug they claim to be selling. If someone were to try selling 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7 as mescaline they could be charged as if selling actual mescaline.
Currently, no state laws ban either 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7. Most states also have analogue and lookalike drug laws in addition to the federal laws. These laws may be stricter than federal law in some states.
Several incidents have been reported on the Internet in which law enforcement agents have crossed paths with 2C-T-7. In all but one case, there are insufficient details to be able to verify the stories, and so they must be considered anecdotal.
According to a post made to The Shroomery, an Internet drug discussion forum, a man was arrested in New York state in October, 2000, for driving an unregistered car. He was found with twenty-two gelcaps each containing 20mg of 2C-T-7. The defendant did not tell the police what the capsules contained. Although the police were not able to identify the substance, the defendant was convicted at his trial at the end of November. It is unclear what the exact charges were. According to the person posting the messages, "I heard that he got the 3 years probation for 'dealing.' That really makes no sense. 'Dealing' is not a legal charge." It was also pointed out that the defendant did not make use of a lawyer during his trial, a decision which likely led to his conviction.
The next incident was also mentioned on The Shroomery, in response to the post about the first case. A man was caught in possession of several 10mg doses of 2C-T-7 individually wrapped in aluminum foil as well as fifteen small bags of marijuana. Police kept the suspect in jail while they performed some tests to try and identify what the 2C-T-7 was. After not being able to identify it, police asked the suspect what it was, to which he responded "its just some Advil I crushed up." He was then released, after being charged only for the marijuana.
In January, 2000, a man in the United States placed an order for 15 Blue Mystic tablets from a smartshop in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. This package was seized by customs, and a notice of confiscation was sent to the purchaser. No further legal action was taken.
The fourth incident in which 2C-T-7 has come to the attention of law enforcement in the United States involved the death of Jake Duroy. This incident was described in detail in the historical section of this paper. This is the only one of these incidents for which there is sufficient information to verify the story. No charges were filed against any people in this case.
This paper has been a fascinating project, and I hope that it will help to characterize two very interesting molecules. However, like almost all research, I feel that it has raised more questions than it has answered. Early 2000, when this project was first conceived, 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 were obscure and vaguely defined psychedelics. Today, they remain relatively obscure, but their personalities have been manifested to a much greater degree.
Until recently, 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 were seen by many as being mere substitutes for 2C-B or mescaline, having no real uniquenesses of their own. This belief may go a long way toward explaining why neither 2C-T-2 nor 2C-T-7 have been the subject of much scientific investigation.
Furthermore, the identities of both drugs have long been blurred. An interesting lesson in the power of speaking first may be found in this story. Writing in PIHKAL, Alexander Shulgin states "There is a considerable parallel between 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7, and both have proven to be excellent tools for introspection. The differences are largely physical. With 2C-T-2, there is more of a tendency to have physical disturbances such as nausea and diarrhea. And the experience is distinctly shorter. With 2C-T-7, physical disturbances are less common, but you are into the effects for almost twice as long." Based on this one paragraph, many people have concluded that 2C-T-2 is simply a shorter and inferior version of 2C-T-7. It has to be remembered that every person responds differently to every drug, and that Shulgin's statement is true only for himself and for people he has observed using the drugs. By virtue of being the first person to write about these two drugs however, his opinion has been taken by many as gospel. As more people have used these drugs, it has become clear that Shulgin's results are not universal. For many people, 2C-T-2 is the superior drug. The results of my user surveys ironically show a higher incidence of physical discomfort among 2C-T-7 users. It also has become clear that the two differ not only in side effects but also in primary effects. Most people who have tried both find that they have significant differences in the states of mind they can produce as well as significant differences in the quality and quantity of visual effects. The two are clearly different drugs with different effects profiles. As an added testimony to the power of suggestion, I was amused when I spoke with several people who thought they had tried both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. Each of these people was emphatic about having had much better experiences with 2C-T-7 than with 2C-T-2. All insisted that 2C-T-7 was much gentler on the body. Upon further questioning, it turned out that they had obtained both drugs in the Netherlands, and that the 2C-T-7 they had tried was in fact the mislabelled 2C-T-2.
As Shulgin describes in PIHKAL, new drugs come into the world as blank slates. With each time it is taken by a human, its personality is manifested more and more. Over time, we can form a fairly clear image of a drug's nature, though as with a person, we can never really know everything there is to know. Both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 have grown up rapidly in the past four years. It seems clear that both are fairly typical members of the phenethylamine family, with much in common with Mother Mescaline and their older sibling 2C-B. Each has their own personality, however. Both also remain children, and there remains much to learn.
Several areas seem worthy of further study by those who are better equipped than I for scientific research. First, toxicological studies need to be carried out to determine what the risk factors are. This goes especially for 2C-T-7, which has been linked to some worrisome incidents. It is crucial that we determine whether the death of Jake Duroy and the other reported incidents were due to some unknown pharmacological actions, were overdoses, or were simply freak accidents. Hand in hand with this, experiments to determine the receptor affinities of each drug as well as their metabolic pathways may provide useful information. The unusual reaction to 2C-T-7 described in the pharmacology section by the man taking beta-blocker medications seems particularly interesting, considering that mescaline is suspected of competing for alpha-adrenergic receptors but appears not to interact with beta-adrenergic receptors. Investigating the receptor affinities of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 may shed some light on unanswered questions about mescaline's pharmacology. As for metabolic pathways, I suspect it would be worthwhile to try and compare the metabolism of 2C-T-2 versus 2C-T-7. When comparing reports from users, 2C-T-7 produces dramatically variable responses in different people, with some people having strong trips at 10mg and others barely feeling 50mg. With 2C-T-2, dosages seem to be much more consistent from person to person. This different response has been reported even by people who have tried both drugs. It seems possible that some difference in the way each drug is metabolized could be responsible for this phenomenon.
Another direction worthy of further research, one which I may pursue myself in the near future, would be more user surveys. First, it would be nice to get more data on 2C-T-2 versus 2C-T-7, asking similar questions to those asked on the survey I conducted for this paper. Nearly ten times the number of 2C-T-7 surveys were received, making direct comparison somewhat difficult. This was rather disappointing, as I expected much more response on 2C-T-2 owing to its popularity in Europe a few years ago. Beyond this, I feel it would be productive to try to gather data on more subjective points. Some questions which seem appropriate would include questions on the duration of the experience, the intensity levels of various effects such as visuals, euphoria, panic, and insights or revelations. Again, I feel it important to try to compare 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. Casual analysis of published first hand reports seems to indicate that the two drugs produce substantially different subjective effects, and trying to quantify these differences would help to establish what strengths and weaknesses each drug may have as potential tools for psychotherapy, creativity enhancement, or spiritual practices.
Both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 are drugs which I feel have significant potential. As tools for therapy, both seem to promote very insightful states of mind, and allow the well-intentioned user to step outside of emotional entanglements and review their lives objectively, acceptingly, and compassionately. Others report emotional opening and release, and increased empathy with people. Many reports describe long lasting feelings of optimism, happiness, and personal growth following experiences with either drug. Both drugs also hold great promise as spiritual tools, enabling easier access to meditative states. In particular, 2C-T-7 seems to be associated with a very centered state, and the increased body awareness and flexibility it produces seems very conducive to practices such as yoga and tai chi. Both drugs have been reported by users as opening the heart chakra. As with most psychedelics, there seems great potential for the use of both drugs as sources of creative inspiration.
Along with the potential for benefit, both drugs also present potential risks. This seems especially true for 2C-T-7, although this could be a distortion of the facts caused by a much smaller sample size of 2C-T-2 users responding to the surveys, or a reflection of the fact that many 2C-T-2 users seem to be more cautious and educated than many 2C-T-7 users. While there have been no significant incidents reported involving 2C-T-2, it is better to be too cautious than not cautious enough. Used in moderation, both drugs seem to be quite safe. While there have been several serious incidents reported, we need to remember that this represents only a tiny fraction of total uses. There have been fewer than ten incidents of concern, out of thousands of total uses. This record looks even better when considering some of the reckless dosages taken by many people.
The biggest risk of course is that the risk factors are not really known. Until more research is done, it would be wise to proceed carefully. People taking 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7 should avoid mixing them with other drugs; if someone does decide to try a drug combination, it would be a good idea to start with a lower than normal dose. People with potentially life threatening medical conditions should avoid taking 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7, or at least start with very low doses.
The most common cause of bad reactions to any drug is taking too
much. This definitely applies to both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. Many users are
careless about dosage measurement, using ineffective techniques such as
the graph paper method or even just guessing. Large doses of either drug,
but particularly 2C-T-7, can lead to states of extreme confusion and
detatchment from physical reality. This can lead to panic reactions,
toxic psychosis, and physical injuries due to being unaware of one's
surroundings. It is even possible that with a large enough dose, death due
to overdose toxicity could occur. In my opinion, many people who are
taking such large doses are missing the point of these drugs. People
taking extremely large doses often mention that they are seeking powerful
visual effects. While 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 can both be extremely visual
drugs, I don't feel that these are the primary focus of the experience.
I feel that the primary strength of these drugs lies in their effects on
the thought processes and emotions, subtle effects which are optimally
experienced in lower dosages than are required for the overpowering
visuals. I believe that the state many of the visual seekers are trying to
achieve are in fact mild overdoses, as physical discomfort can become
quite pronounced at such dosage levels. While I firmly believe in the
right of these people to take such doses if that makes them happy, they
may wish to consider turning to drugs such as DMT which produce intense
visuals in more reasonable dosages, with much less physical side effects.
First time users of either drug should limit their doses to 10 to 15mg
One other suggestion for minimizing bad reactions is to take these
One other suggestion for minimizing bad reactions is to take thesedrugs orally. Other routes carry much higher risk of accidentally taking too much, due to the much smaller dosage ranges involved. Although a very popular method, snorting these drugs dramatically increases the variety, intensity, and duration of side effects. Of all the bad reactions which have been reported, whether physical or psychological, the overwhelming majority involved cases where the drug was insufflated. In addition to the much smaller dose ranges involved, the rapid onset of effects can take many people by surprise. Rather than a serene and gradual two hour ramp up when taken orally, snorting it can result in a very sudden and rapid catapulting into an extremely altered state of mind. Oral doses offer fewer side effects, a wider margin of error in dose measurement, and a gentler transition into the experience. In addition, there is none of the intense pain nor the potential for damage to the nasal passeges which are present when snorting them. I strongly discourage taking either 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7 by any route other than by mouth.
I feel one of the most important things people need to realize about both drugs is that they are still experimental drugs. In the end, it is very likely that research will show them both to be very safe and useful drugs - but until that research has been done, it is important to be respectful of the experimental nature of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. It is also possible that research will show them to be dangerous drugs which work very differently from mescaline. Anyone considering using them should keep this in mind and not use the drugs recklessly. Use low doses, and take long breaks between uses of either drug. You can always take a higher dose next time, but you can't go back and untake some if you take too much and have a bad reaction. Avoid putting these chemicals in the hands of people who you do not honestly believe can use them responsibly. I firmly believe that people have the right to be irresponsible and self-destructive, but at the same time I also believe that those of us who know better should not go out of our ways to help them. The right to be stupid can not and must not be hindered if we are to live in a free and civilized society. That doesn't mean it should be encouraged, however.
Chemistry has given us two very interesting chemicals in 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. Both hold great promise as tools to benefit mankind. Let's learn what we can about them, and perhaps then we may learn from them.
This research paper has been brought to you by the letter Þ and by the number 42.
2C-T-2 User Quotes
Long Term Effects
User Quotes 2C-T-7
Long Term Effects
User Quotes 2C-T-2 vs. 2C-T-7
Taken from PIHKAL by Alexander Shulgin
To a solution of 165 g 1,4-dimethoxybenzene in 1 L of CH2Cl2, in a well ventilated place and well stirred, there was cautiously added 300 mL chlorosulfonic acid. With about half the acid chloride added, there was a vigorous evolution of HCl gas and the generation of a lot of solids. As the addition was continued, these redissolved to form a clear, dark green solution. Towards the end of the addition, some solids were again formed. When everything was stable, there was added 2 L H2O, a few mL at a time, commensurate with the vigor of the reaction. The two phases were separated, and the aqueous phase extracted with 2x75 mL CH2Cl2. The original organic phase and the extracts were combined and the solvent removed under vacuum. The residue weighed 162 g and was quite pure 2,5-dimethoxybenzenesulfonyl chloride, a yellow crystalline solid with a mp of 115-117 °C. It need not be further purified for the next step, and it appears to be stable on storage. The sulfonamide, from this acid chloride and ammonium hydroxide, gave white crystals from EtOH, with a mp of 147.5-148.5 °C.
The following reaction is also a very vigorous one and must be performed in a well ventilated place. To a solution of 400 mL 25% H2SO4 (V/V) in a beaker at least 2 L in size, there was added 54 g of 2,5-dimethoxybenzenesulfonyl chloride, and the mixture was heated on a steam bath. The yellow crystals of the acid chloride floated on the surface of the aqueous layer. There should be 80 g of zinc dust at hand. A small amount of Zn dust was placed at one spot on the surface of this chapeau. With occasional stirring with a glass rod, the temperature was allowed to rise. At about 60 or 70 °C an exothermic reaction took place at the spot where the zinc was placed. Additional dollups of zinc were added, and each small exothermic reaction site was spread about with the glass stirring rod. Finally, the reaction spread to the entire solid surface layer, with a melting of the acid chloride and an apparent boiling at the H2O surface. The remainder of the 80 g of zinc dust was added as fast as the size of the reaction container would allow. After things subsided again, the heating was continued for 1 h on the steam bath. After the reaction mixture had cooled to room temperature, it was filtered through paper in a Buchner funnel, and the residual metal washed with 100 mL CH2Cl2. The two-phase filtrate was separated, and the lower, aqueous phase was extracted with 2x75 mL CH2Cl2. The addition of 2 L H2O to the aqueous phase now made it the upper phase in extraction, and this was again extracted with 2x75 mL CH2Cl2. The organic extracts were pooled (H2O washing is more trouble than it is worth) and the solvent removed under vacuum. The light amber residue (30.0 g) was distilled at 70-80 °C at 0.3 mm/Hg to yield 25.3 g 2,5-dimethoxythiophenol as a white oil. This chemical is certainly not centrally active, but it is a most valuable precursor to all members of the 2C-T family.
To a solution of 3.4 g of KOH pellets in 75 mL boiling EtOH, there was added a solution of 10.0 g 2,5-dimethoxythiophenol in 60 mL EtOH followed by 10.9 g ethyl bromide. The reaction was exothermic with the immediate deposition of white solids. This was heated on the steam bath for 1.5 h, added to 1 L H2O, acidified with HCl, and extracted with 3x100 mL CH2Cl2. The pooled extracts were washed with 100 mL of 5% NaOH, and the solvent removed under vacuum. The residue was 2,5-dimethoxyphenyl ethyl sulfide which was a pale amber oil, weighed about 10 g and which was sufficiently pure for use in the next reaction without a distillation step.
A mixture of 19.2 POCl3 and 18.0 g N-methylformanilide was heated briefly on the steam bath. To this claret-colored solution there was added the above 2,5-dimethoxyphenyl ethyl sulfide, and the mixture heated an additional 20 min on the steam bath. This was then added to 500 mL of well-stirred warm H2O (pre-heated to 55 °C) and the stirring continued for 1.5 h by which time the oily phase had completely solidified to a brown sugar-like consistency. The solids were removed by filtration, and washed with additional H2O. After being sucked as dry as possible, these solids were dissolved in 50 mL boiling MeOH which, after cooling in an ice-bath, deposited almost-white crystals of 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(ethylthio)-benzaldehyde. After filtration, modest washing with cold MeOH, and air drying to constant weight, there was obtained 11.0 g of product with a mp of 86-88 °C. Recrystallization of a small sample again from MeOH provided an analytical sample with mp 87-88 °C. Anal. (C11H14O3S) C,H.
To a solution of 11.0 g 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(ethylthio)benzaldehyde in 100 g of nitromethane there was added 0.5 g of anhydrous ammonium acetate, and the mixture was heated on the steam bath for 80 min (this reaction progress must be monitored by TLC, to determine the point at which the starting aldehyde has been consumed). The excess nitromethane was removed under vacuum leaving a residue that spontaneously set to orange-red crystals. These were scraped out to provide 12.9 g crude 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylthio-beta-nitrostyrene with a mp of 152-154 °C. A sample recrystallized from toluene was pumpkin colored and had a mp of 148-149 °C. Another sample from acetone melted at 149 °C sharp, and was light orange. From IPA came spectacular fluorescent orange crystals, with a mp 151-152 °C. Anal. (C12H15NO4S) C,H.
A suspension of 12.4 g LAH in 500 mL anhydrous THF was stirred under He. To this there was added 12.4 g 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylthio-beta-nitrostyrene in a little THF, and the mixture was held at reflux for 24 h. After the reaction mixture had returned to room temperature, the excess hydride was destroyed by the cautious addition of 60 mL IPA, followed by 20 mL of 5% NaOH followed, in turn, by sufficient H2O to give a white granular character to the oxides. The reaction mixture was filtered, and the filter cake washed first with THF and then with MeOH. Removing the solvents from the combined filtrate and washings under vacuum provided 9.5 g of a yellow oil. This was added to 1 L dilute HCl and washed with 2x100 mL CH2Cl2 which removed all color. After making the aqueous phase basic with 25% NaOH, it was extracted with 3x100 mL CH2Cl2, the extracts pooled, and the solvent removed under vacuum to provide 7.3 g of a pale amber oil. Distillation at 120-130 °C at 0.3 mm/Hg gave 6.17 g of a clear white oil. This was dissolved in 80 mL IPA and neutralized with concentrated HCl, forming immediate crystals of 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylthiophenethylamine hydrochloride (2C-T-2). An equal volume of anhydrous Et2O was added and, after complete grinding and mixing, the salt was removed by filtration, washed with Et2O, and air dried to constant weight. The resulting white crystals weighed 6.2 g.
Taken from PIHKAL by Alexander Shulgin
To a solution of 3.4 g of KOH pellets in 50 mL hot MeOH, there was added a mixture of 6.8 g 2,5-dimethoxythiophenol (see under the recipe for 2C-T-2 for its preparation) and 7.4 g (n)-propylbromide dissolved in 20 mL MeOH. The reaction was exothermic, with the deposition of white solids. This was heated on the steam bath for 0.5 h, added to 800 mL H2O, additional aqueous NaOH added until the pH was basic, and extracted with 3x75 mL CH2Cl2. The pooled extracts were washed with dilute NaOH, and the solvent removed under vacuum. The residue was 2,5-dimethoxyphenyl (n)-propyl sulfide which was obtained as a pale yellow oil, and which weighed 8.9 g. It had a light pleasant fruity smell, and was sufficiently pure for use in the next reaction without distillation.
A mixture of 14.4 g POCl3 and 13.4 g N-methylformanilide was heated for 10 min on the steam bath. To this claret-colored solution was added 8.9 g of 2,5-dimethoxyphenyl (n)-propyl sulfide, and the mixture heated an additional 25 min on the steam bath. This was then added to 800 mL of well-stirred warm H2O (pre-heated to 55 °C) and the stirring continued until the oily phase had completely solidified (about 15 minutes). The resulting brown sugar-like solids were removed by filtration, and washed with additional H2O. After sucking as dry as possible, they were dissolved in an equal weight of boiling MeOH which, after cooling in an ice-bath, deposited pale ivory colored crystals. After filtration, modest washing with cold MeOH, and air drying to constant weight, there was obtained 8.3 g of 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(n-propyl-thio)benzaldehyde with a mp of 73-76 °C. Recrystallization from 2.5 volumes of MeOH provided a white analytical sample with mp 76-77 °C. The NMR spectrum in CDCl3 was textbook perfect, with the two aromatic protons showing singlet signals at 6.81 and 7.27 ppm, giving assurance that the assigned location of the introduced aldehyde group was correct.
To a solution of 4.0 g 2,5-dimethoxy-(n-propylthio)benzaldehyde in 20 g of nitromethane there was added 0.23 g of anhydrous ammonium acetate, and the mixture was heated on the steam bath for 1 h. The clear orange solution was decanted from some insoluble material and the excess nitromethane removed under vacuum. The orange-yellow crystalline material that remained was crystallized from 70 mL boiling IPA which, on slow cooling, deposited 2,5-dimethoxy-beta-nitro-4-(n)-propylthiostyrene as orange crystals. After their removal by filtration and air-drying to constant weight, they weighed 3.6 g, and had a mp of 120-121 °C. Anal. (C13H17NO4S) C,H.
A solution of LAH (132 mL of a 1 M solution in THF) was cooled, under He, to 0 °C with an external ice bath. With good stirring there was added 3.5 mL 100% H2SO4 dropwise, to minimize charring. This was followed by the addition of 8.4 g 2,5-dimethoxy-beta-nitro-4-(n)-propylthiostyrene in 50 mL anhydrous THF. There was an immediate loss of color. After a few min further stirring, the tem-perature was brought up to a gentle reflux on the steam bath, then all was cooled again to 0 °C. The excess hydride was destroyed by the cautious addition of IPA (21 mL required) followed by sufficent 5% NaOH to give a white granular character to the oxides, and to assure that the reaction mixture was basic (15 mL was used). The reaction mixture was filtered and the filter cake washed first with THF and then with IPA. The filtrate and washes were combined and stripped of solvent under vacuum providing about 6 g of a pale amber oil. Without any further purification, this was distilled at 140-150 °C at 0.25 mm/Hg to give 4.8 g of product as a clear white oil. This was dissolved in 25 mL IPA, and neutralized with concentrated HCl forming immediate crystals of the hydrochloride salt in the alcohol solvent. An equal volume of anhydrous Et2O was added, and after complete grinding and mixing, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylthiophenethylamine hydrochloride (2C-T-7) was removed by filtration, Et2O washed, and air dried to constant weight. The resulting spectacular white crystals weighed 5.2 g.
What is 2C-T-2?2C-T-2 is a synthetic compound in the "phenethylamine" family of chemicals. 2C-T-2 is a psychedelic amphetamine with two sides: an energetic "speedy" one and a mind-expanding "trippy" one. The "trippy" effect is the dominant one in 2C-T-2.
What does 2C-T-2 do?2C-T-2 has a consciousness-altering effect. In general, this is described as "tripping" or "hallucination". The user's perception of reality changes, time and space take on a different meaning and emotions - either positive or negative - can be enhanced.
Dosage and useOne tablet of 2C-T-2 contains 8 milligrams of the active substance. 2C-T-2 is sold in sets of two 8mg tablets - a total dose of 16mg.
If you are using 2C-T-2 for the first time, or only want to experience mild effects, take one tablet with a considerable amount of water. It is advisable to have some food in your stomach, so as to retain the water for a time. If you take two tablets (16mg), expect a strong and intense experience. Never take two tablets the first time you use 2C-T-2!!!
SettingHallucinogens like 2C-T-2 strengthen the intensity of your senses. Use these substances in a peaceful setting. Outdoors (in a wood or park) or at home are ideal places. Do not take them when you are alone, unless you are an experienced user. Well-chosen music and light, incense and your own positive attitude can heavily influence the effects of the substance, and will intensify the experience. Ensure that you have plenty of water to hand, and a place where you can lie down comfortably.
WarningConsciousness-changing substances such as 2C-T-2 can have a major effect on your life. In our opinion, their benefit comes from integrating the insights which you gain during your experience into your life. Never underestimate 2C-T-2!
After using 2C-T-2, take good care of your body. A balanced diet and use of the correct vitamins and food supplements will accelerate the recovery of your brain and other organs. Drink plenty of fluids during the days following use, so as to detoxify your body rapidly.
If you are in any doubt do not take the substance, or ask a specialist or doctor for advice!
Increased physical effort whilst using 2C-T-2 can cause nausea and headaches.
Exclusive distributor: Conscious Dreams Distributie bv, Amsterdam, tel. +31 20 470 7744.
Blue Mystic Flier, Version One
Blue Mystic (contents per tablet: 7.5 mg PT-DM-PEA) 5 tabs. = 1-2 doses
General effects & course of the experience:
Blue Mystic Flier, Version Two
General effects & course of the experience:
This is a dietary supplement en should only be used as such. Always consult your physician before use. Especially un case you are under medical supervision. Do not use in case of hart and vascular diseases, in case of high blood pressure, affection of the thyroid gland and / or the adrenal glands and / or the stomach and / or the urine ways, elarged prostate, diabetes, any psychological problems, in case of the use of MAO-inhibitors and / or medicines and / or alcohol and / or drugs. Do not use in case of pregnancy or nursing.
This product is not intended or suited to be used to cure, relieve, or prevent from any affection, disease, symptom, pain, injury or infirmity of man. This product is not meant or suited to be used to cure, improve or change the functioning of human organs, to diagnose by administration or application to man.. This product is not meant or suited to be used as meant in the Dutch medicine law.
Not intended for persons under the age of 18 years old. Store cool and dry. Store out of reach of children.
Blue Mystic Shopkeeper Instructions
Instructies voor verkoop:
Instructions for resale:
Bibliography & Credits
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