Chemical References

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- the following are definations for terms/chemicals used in this site...

NOTE- Imcompatible substances should not me mixed with their respective chemicals under uncontrolled conditions.
A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

Acorus Calamus- plant from which arasones are extracted from.
Images: Lycaeum photos.
Links: Info.

Acetic acid- regular white vineger is 5% acetic acid. glacial acetic acid WAS used in photography as "Stop Bath concentrate" (now Citric acid is used instead. maybe extracted from vinger. forms an azeotrope with water.
Links: recipe | MSDS".

Acetone- solvent available at hardware stores (good quality, $7/gallon in US). in UK, 99.5% acetone is available at request from pharmacies (100mL entitled "Care"). used in photography,
Links: MSDS.

Acetylene- a gas... very explosive. must be kept wet to prevent combustion.

Acids- contains a -H group (hydrogen). acids are acids because they are aqueous solutions. Acids react with alcohols. Examples are hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, etc.

ACS- American Chemical Society. used to illustrate product meets the requirements of ACS.

Alcohol- contains an -OH group (hydroxide). alcohols are basic, and react with acids. Examples are sodium hydroxide, isopropyl alcohol, etc.

Alkaloid- a compound (containing nitrogen) derived from plants with pharmacological significance. Examples are caffine, quinine, morphine, etc...

Allyl group- (H2C=CHCH2--) also known as the propenyl group.

Allylbenzene- used as compressor fluid

Almond oil- oil from either bitter or sweet almonds. generally contains 95% benzaldehyde and 3% prussic acid (hydrogen cyanide). general prepartion for steam distillation involves pressing and macerating the nuts in warm water for 12-24 hrs. followed by steam distillation.

Amine- this is the -NH2 group. There are primary, terteriary, etc. amines. Examples of amines are ammonia, ephedrine, etc.

Ammonia- (NH3) Ammonia in it's natural state is a gas. THIS IS NOT THE SAME AS HOUSEHOLD CLEANING AMMONIA. Cleaning ammonia is an aqueous solution of ammonia. when storing anhydrous ammonia in cylinders, avoid brass fitting as ammonia tends to "eat" them; can be stored in butane bottles placed upside-down to balance out fill pressure. used in ice plants and in welding. Price quotes: 150lb cylinders/USD 100.
Links: MSDS (.pdf) | Recipe.

Ammonium acetate- can be produced by household ammonia and acetic acid.

Ammonium chloride- (sal ammoniac) sublimes. used in soldering, and in photography.

Ammonium hydroxide- available as household ammonia in 3-10% conc. or at hardware stores in "janitor's strength??" as 28%conc? may be bought at any place that services copiers that copy Blue Prints for $6.00/gal. (30% conc).

Ammonium nitrate- used in some fertilizers, and explosives. can be produced by the reaction of nitric acid and anhydrous ammonia.
Links: MSDS.

Amphetamine- a scheduled substance.
Images: 2D. Links: Lycaeum.

Anise oil- the essensial oil of anise. there are different varieties of this oil depending on the species of plant that is was extracted from. primarily anise oil contains anethol among other chemicals. star anise oil is known to contain 20-30% safrole.

Anise oil extract- found at grocery stores. contains anise oil in an alcohol base.

Anhydrous- meaning without water or dehydrated. Example, anhydrous HCl is not a solution...

Images: 2D.

Benzaldehyde- main component in almond oil.
Links: patent.

Benzene- (C6H8) a cyclic hydrocarbon with an intense odor.
Links: MSDS | Benzene to P2P.

Bromine- one of the halogens. Is a liquid in it's natural state. Very poisonous. Store in amber bottles in a cool dry place (light sensitive material).

Bromosafrole- brominated (halogenated) safrole

Calcium chloride- (CaCl2) Available many places as Damp-Rid. To dehydrate, place in oven on cookie sheet at 250 C for 3hrs.

Calcium hypochloride- available at pool cleaning supply stores

Calcium oxide- (CaO) aka QuickLime, Limestone (as used in landscaping). a fine grey powder. when added to water, exothermic reaction takes place. keep tightly sealed. used to dry EtOH. produced when Ca(OH)2 is heated to 1000 deg C with CaCO3.

Camphor oil- contains safrole, and eugenol. most commerical safrole is derived from this oil.
Links: Oil data.

Carboxylic acid- (-COOH) a weak acid.

Cassia oil- Cinnamomum cassia. contains 90% cinnamaldehyde.
Links: Info.

Catalyst- a chemical that increases the rate of the reaction without participating in the reaction.

Cathinone- a precursor to methcathinone. found in the plant Catha edulis (Khat). a potent central nervous system stimulant. two enantiomers exist, where ()-cathinone is more potent than (+)-cathinone. S()-cathinone is equivalent to S(+)-amphetamine.
Images: 2D | Catha plant.

Chloroform- pure chloroform decomposes when stored, especially when moisture or sunlight is present. decomposition gives rise to carbonyl chloride, and phosgene (poisonous gas). usually stored with alcohol to prevent decomposition (0.5 - 1% alcohol to anhydrous chloroform.) alcohol combines with phosgene can makes ethyl carbonate.

Cinnamaldehyde- can be made by mixing benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde, agitate with aqueous alkali (10%NaOH) at room temp and slow condensation cinnamaldehyde occurs.
Images: 2D.

Cinnamon Oil- Cinnamomum zeylanicum. oil from leaf contains 85-90% eugenol. Oil from bark contains 55-70% Cinnamic aldehyde, 4-9% eugenol. One price quotes: bark USD 350/kg, leaf USD 200/kg.
Links: Info.

Cinnamon Oil, white- Canella alba.
Links: Info.

Cyanogen Bromide- (CNBr) very dangerous, very poisionous. Do not attempt to handle without a fume hood!!!
Links: Eleusis' Synthesis | Zwit's Synthesis.

DCM- see dichloromethane

dH2O- distilled water

Dichloromethane- (DCM) solvent. can be obtained by firework suppliers or distilled from some paint thinners, or from plastics supply as solvent for acrylic plastics (pure source?). a recommended brand is Zip-Strip in a bee-like black & yellow can (also contains a little ethanol, methanol, and mineral spirits. can be distilled by adding more mineral spirits to dilute the gel). non-flamable, low-boiling point, denser than water. absolutely great for crystalizations, as our head bee states, "DCM is da BOMB as a solvent for crystallization. Really!"
Links: MSDS.

Diethyl ether- can be dried with magnesium sulfate/calcium chloride to produce anhydrous diethyl ether. After twelve months storage, check for peroxide presence before distilling or evaporating.
Links: Recipe | Another Recipe.

Dimethyl sulfoxide- ((CH3)2SO) a solvent.
Links: DMSO.

Diphosphorous Pentaoxide- (P2O5) used to dehydrate some solids and liquids via refluxing with it for several hrs. Some solvents might be incompatible with this drying agent.

Distillation- process of boiling a liquid, condensing the vapor and collecting it into a receiving flask. used for purification and seperation.

DMSO- see dimethyl sulfoxide

Drying agent- a substance used to dry solvents. see magnesium sulfate

Ecstacy- see MDMA

Ephedra- plant from which ephedrine and pseudoephedrine is extracted from.
Images: Ephedra nevadensis.
Links: Info | DOJ's Precursor Publication | Synthesis, Extaction, Esterification | Refs on Extraction and synthesis of.

Ephedrine- active constitutent in ephedra species of plants. known for it's energizing characteristic, and sold in health food stores in various forms. soulable in alcohol, chloroform, toulene, and other solvents. various salt forms. l-(S)-ephedrine is the naturally occuring isomer. d-(-) configuration potency, ED = .33mg/kg. l-(+) ED = .99mg/kg. fw of free base= 165.24.
Links: Synthesis | Electroreduction of | To Chloroephedrine | Birch Reduction of | see links under EPHEDRA (above).

Espom salts- see magnesium sulfate

Essential oils- oils extracted from plants (via distillation) that have strong odors. Usually used in perfume production. These oils usually contain aromatic compounds.

Ethanol- pure grain alcohol. can be dried with calcium oxide.
Images: 2D | RasMol | Chime.

Ether- see diethyl ether

Ethyl ether- see diethyl ether

Eugenol- precursor, and is the 95% constituent of clove oil, and 80-90% constituent of Cinnamomum Verum / C. Burmani leaves.
Images: 2D.
Links: MDMA Precursors from | Synthesis of Safrole from.

Fomaldehyde- (HCHO) aka embalming fluid, Formalin (37%), methanal. can be produced from the silver catalytic oxidation of methanol by air (500 deg C).
Links: MSDS.

Formic acid- (HCOOH) a carboxylic acid occuring in ants (the "fire" in red ants), in the stinging hairs of certain insects, in the blood, urine, bile, persperation, and muscular fluid of man, in the stinging-nettle, and in the leaves trees in the pine family. It is used as a tanner in taxidermy, and as allpurpose descaler (sold in Britian at Boots under the name ATAKA at BP 1.75/125mL). It is produced in a number of reactions: by the oxidation of many organic substances: sugar, starch, gelatin, etc;... by the action of potash on chloroform. By the action of mineral acids in hydrocyanic acid; during the fermentation of diabetic urine, by the direct union of carbon monoxide and water, by the decomposition of oxalic acid under the influence of glycerin at about 100 deg. C. also known as methanoic acid. bp 100.8 C, forms formic acid-water azeotrope at 77.5% conc. with a bp of 107.3 C @ 760mm. azeotrope may be fractionally distilled under reduced pressure. Formic acid at dilute conc. can be dehydrated by boric anhydride or copper sulfate (see recipe link below). Price quotes: USD 14/qt, USD 40/gal.
Links: recipe | Preparation and Purification | MSDS.

Freilich Condenser- optimum for refluxing due to their large surface area.

Guaiacol- expectorant.

Halogens- the name for a group of chemcials found on the periodic table that has strong ionic properties. The halogens are Flourine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, and Asantine. Because of the strong tendency to ionicly bond, halogens are only stable (and therefore found in nature) as diatomic molecules. (eg. Cl by itself will bind to another Cl, stablizing as Cl2)

Halogenation- a process by which a halogen is introduced into a substance.

Heptane- 65% of starter fluid, also present in Rubber Cement Thinner. used as a substitute of petroleum ether.

Hexamine- found in camping fuel, must be cleaned to use. can be crystallized from tablets by washing once with water, then wash once with large amounts of hot acetone. 4g esbit fuel tablets contain 2.5-3g Hexamine. as posted by Cherrie Baby:
Hexamine data. Aka HMTA, methenamine, hexamethylenetetramine, urotropine. Merck Index #6036. C6H12N4; MWt 140.19; white crystalline powder or granules, or colourless lustrous crystals; odourless; sp. Gr. 1.27 (25); sublimes at 263 without melting [mp: 285-95] and with partial decomposition. Burns with a smokeless flame. Solubility: 1 g is soluble in 1.5 mL water, 12.5 mL alcohol, 10 mL chloroform; 320 mL ether; soluble in acetone (4g to 50mL) [but I have no precise data from CRC handbook]. pH of 0.2 molar aq. Soln. = 8.4.

and posted by Rhodium:
I boiled 15 grams of HMTA in 100ml acetone today and filtered hot. The mass was ~14g. Ok, not INSOLUBLE but not what I would call soluble either...

HgAc- mercuric acetate

hydrobromic acid- a light-sensitive acid (store in amber bottles). see hydrogen bromide

hydrochloric acid- (HCl) Relatively strong acid, used as a cleaning agent. Available in many different concentrations, either as percent of concentration or molality. Available as muriatic acid (25-33% conc.) from hardware stores and pool cleaning supply stores. can be distilled to produce a constant boiling solution of 35-38% concentration.
Links: MSDS.

hydroiodic acid- (HI) this is a solid and can be made crudely by dumping phosphorous in water and adding iodine crystals. Other methods include the addition of KI in H3PO4, bubbling hydrogen sulfide into iodine water (90% yields), or reacting phosphorus with iodine solution. HI's fumes are potentially fatal.

hydrogen- a colorless, explosive gas produced in numerous ways including the electrolysis of salt water.

hydrogen bromide- (HBr) a colorless gas made by the direct addition of hydrogen and bromide using a platnium catalyst; or Tetralin and bromide as illustrated in Vogel's Practical Organic Chemistry. soluble in water to form hydrobromic acid.
Links: MSDS (.pdf).

hydrogen chloride- (HCl) gas; can be made by dripping hydrochloric acid onto anhydrous magnesium sulfate.
Links: MSDS (.pdf).

hydrogen cyanide- (HCN) prussic acid. found in imported lima beans (0.01%). extremely harzardous material!!! from Merck: colorless, characteristic odor. Exposure to 150 ppm for .5 to 1 hr. may endanger life. Death may result from a few min exposure to 300ppm. Antidote: sodium nitrate or sodium thiosulphate.

hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2) available in many different concentrations. highly concentrated peroxide will react very violently to any organic matter and can cause serious explosions. available at local pharmacies, hydroponic suppliers (30%), health food stores (30%), pool cleaner suppliers (as Baquashock, 27% conc), distilled water suppliers; used in sewage disinfectant. Incompatible with copper, chromium, iron, most metals or their salts, flammable liquid, combustible materials, aniline, nitromethane.
Links: 3% MSDS | 30% MSDS.

hydrogen sulfide- made by dripping HCl onto Iron Sulfide. Incompatible with nitric acid, oxidizing gases.

iodine- (I2) used in photography, and water purifaction. tintures of iodine contain 2% iodine in alcohol base. crystalline iodine is cheap.
Links: MSDS.

in situ- in place

in vitro-- in test tube

in vivo- in an organism

Iron Out- see sodium bisulfite

isomers- these are compounds having the same molecular formula but having different arrangements usually having different physical and chemical properties.

isopropyl alcohol- (IPA) available everywhere in dilute concentrations. salt out dilution and distill to obtain anhydrous IPA.

Isosafrole- an isomer of safrole found in star anise oil. Infinite shelf-life.
Links: info.

Ketone- any organic containing a carbonyl group bonded to 2 hydrocarbon groups.

Lab grade- less pure than reagent grade

Lye- see sodium hydroxide

M- see molar

Magnesium sulfate- (MgSO4) also known as Espom Salts. used as a drying agent for solvents (esp. organic, and/or alcohols). can be dried to produced anhydrous magnesium sulfate. To reuse, rinse with solvent, then dry in an oven at 150 C for 20 minutes.
Links: recipe.

MeNH2- see Methylamine

Mercuric chloride- (HgCl2) available from photographic chemical stores as intensifiers. used in alternative photographic processes.
Links: MSDS- HgCl2.

Methylamine- (CH3NH2) strong order which may be removed with Lava soap or a lemon juice & baking soda shower. This is a gas, the hydrochloric salt (made by bubbling gas in HCl) is a solid and storable form.
Links: Rhodium's Synthesis | Eleusis' Synthesis | Zwit's Synthesis.

MDA- 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine. a scheduled substance. empathogenic.
Images: 2D | 3D.

MDMA- (Ecstacy) 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetmine. a scheduled substance. derived from MDA. empathogenic.
Images: 2D | 3D | RasMol | Chime.
Links: Lycaeum | Psychedelic Abstracts.

MDP2P- 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone. light yellow oil, slightly more viscous than water, and smells good. refridgerate for long-term storage.

MDP2Pol- 3-4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-proanol. water-white color and a safrolish smell with a hint of alcohol.

Methamphetamine- a scheduled substance. CNS stimulant. soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and water.
Images: 2D.
Links: Lycaeum | Psychedelic Abstracts.

Methanol- (CH3OH) also known as methyl alcohol and wood alcohol. sold as windshield washer fluid/antifreeze, alcohol stove fuel, shellac paint thinners, and used in model race car fuel.
Links: MSDS.

Methcathinone- a scheduled substance. Twice as potent as cathinone.
Links: FAQ v2.2 | FAQ Critique | Synthesis Notes | Hyperreal's Synthesis | Jones Reagent Synthesis | PPA Synthesis | Zwit's Synthesis.

Methyl- (CH3--)

Methylamine- (CH3NH2) mp 227 deg. the hydrochloride salt forms long white crystals. IS poisonous, esp. free base gas... maximum exposure is assayed at 110ppm per 8 hrs.

Methylene chloride- see dichloromethane.

Molality- (m) a term used to denote the concentration of solvent. 1 m = moles / kilogram of solvent.

Molar- (M) a term used to denote the concentration of a solution. 1 M =moles/liter of total solution.

Mole- (mol) the standardized unit of a substance. is is equal to the molecular wieght, or wieght of the comprise atoms.

N- see normality

Nitroalkenes- can be reduced with Palladium, Carbon, and Hydrogen, with solvents glacial acetic acid and sulfuric acid.

Nitrogen- a gas, and is available at some air conditioning supply stores (used to flush out A/C systems.)

Nitromethane- found in hobby racecar fuels w/methanol. cannot be purified as forms azetrope; but this is useful for methylamine.
Links: MSDS.

Nor-- N-Ohne-Radikal, german. used to describe a compound missing it's functional group. (e.g. norephedrine is missing a methyl group on its nitrogen)

Norephedrine- see phenylpropanolamine.

Normality- "the number of equivalents per liter of solution, where the definition of an equivalent depends on the reation taking place. For an acid-base reaction, the equivalent is the mass of acid or base that can furnish exactly 1 mole of protons (H+ ions). For oxidation-reduction reactions, the equivalent is defined as the quantity of oxidizing or reducing agent that can accept or furnish 1 mole of electrons... note, for example that the equivalent mass of sulfuric acid is the molar mass divided by 2, since each mole of (sulfuric acid) can furnish 2 mole of electrons. Some relationships are as follows: HCl: 1M=1N; H2SO4: 1M=2N; H3PO4: 1M=3N; Ca(OH)2: 1M=2N." -(Chemistry, Zumdahl; from post by Arsonist33)

Ocotea symbarum- see sassafras oil

Octyl Methoxycinnamate- ingredient of sunscreen lotions, and a 1-octanol ester of p-methoxyamphetamine.

P2P- phenyl-2-propanone. refridgerate for long-term storage.
Links: P2P from Benzene or Toulene | P2P from P2Pol.

Palladium- (Pd) a soft white precious metal that can hold 900 times its own volume of hydrogen. used in dentistry, callatic converters, and jewlery. in chemistry it is used for catalytic hydrogenation. forms few simple salts (Palladium Chloride).
Links: Price Quote.

Paraformaldehyde- sold at Walmart as RV septic tank additive in the Automotive section. Also available from Damp-Rid.

Peroxide Test- Used to determine presence of peroxides which could lead to a violent explosion. Add 1-3 mL of test liquid to equal volume of acetic acid, few drops of 5% aqueous potassium iodide solution, and mix. Appearance of yellow to brown color indicates presence of peroxides. Alternatively, 0.5 mL test liquid to 1 mL 10% aqueous potassium iodide solution and 0.5 mL of dilute hydrochloric acid to which has been added a few drops of starch solution just prior to the test. Appearance of blue or blue-black color within 1 min indicates presence of peroxides.

Phenylacetone- see P2P

Phenylpropanolamine- (PPA) precursor to amphetamine.

Piperonol- precursor. can be made by oxidizing piperic acid from black pepper.
Links: Info.

Perchloric acid- powerful oxidizer. may be distilled from sodium and potassium perchlorate in concentrated sulfuric acid under reduced pressure. warning: perchlorate is usually contaminated with chlorate which when reacted with sulfuric acid produces chloric acid (explosive!). Incompatible with acetic anhydride, bismuth and alloys, alcohol, paper, wood, grease, oil.

Phenols- a group of compounds comprised of benzene with an alcohol group bound to a benzene carbon. phenols are acidic.

Phosphorous- (P) Price quotes: USD 4/100g.
Links: Info.

Potassium hydroxide- previously used in place of sodium hydroxide. same as lye.
Links: MSDS.

Pseudoephedrine- active ingredient in nasal decongestants such as Sudafed. OTC isomer is d-(S)-pseudoephedrine in various salt forms. l-(+) configuration potency, ED = 1.65mg/kg. d-(-) ED = 3.3mg/kg. see also ephedrine.

Petroleum ether- (pentane). heptane can be used as a substitute.

reagent grade- purer than lab grade.

Reflux- used when a reaction must take place over long periods of time. consisting of boiling a solution in a round-bottomed flask, condensing the vapor, and returning it back into the reaction.

Safrole- an essential oil occuring in many plants, including sassafras. insoluble in water, very soluble in alcohol and acetone, miscible in chloroform and ether. colorless to slightly yellow. mp 52 (pure), bp 232-234; d 1.09 g/ml. infinite shelf-life.

Sassafras oil- Sassafras officinale. oil distill from sassafras. not a restristed oil, but is suspicious in large quanities obviously. there are many different kinds of oils depending on the species it was extracted from. examples are american sassafras, brazilian sassafras (Ocotea symbarum 90% safrole), sassafras officinalis (vietnamese, 85-90%)...
Links: Info | Eleusis' Purification.

Selenium oxide- (SeO2) a toxic and accumulative chemical. found in cold blueing solutions for gun-metal restoration available at sporting goods stores.

Sodium Azide- (NaN3) found in airbag gas generators. produces Na metal when decomposed.

Sodium bicarbonate- duh! baking soda? also available at pool cleaning supply stores.

Sodium bisulfate- available at pool cleaning supply stores, and fermentation industries (wine, beer, come on people!) real cheap. Iron Out brand contains both sodium bisulfate and sodium hydrosulfite.

Sodium borohydride- (NaBH3) used in reductive aminizations. more commonly used than sodium cyanborohydride.

Sodium bromide- available at pool cleaning supply stores as a sanitizer (oxidizing) using bromine as a base. used in hot water (spas) becuase chlorine base melts too fast.

Sodium carbonate- available at pool cleaning supply stores.

Sodium cyanborohydride- (NaBH3CN) some nasty stuff! used in reductive aminizations. also used in inorganic chemistry to make fungicides and bacteriocides. can be made by bubbling cyanide gas through sodium borohydride.

Sodium hydroxide- (NaOH) A strong base; very corrosive. Found as the active agent in Dranyo and other drain openers. Also known as wood bleach.
Links: MSDS.

Sodium metasulfate- (Na2S2O5) bisulfate of commerce, and (for practical purposes) possess the same properties as sodium bisulfate. available from fermentation industries.

Sodium nitrate- can decompose violently. OTC source as meat curing salt??? Incompatible with ammonium nitrate and other ammonium salts.

Sodium sulfate- used to dry solvents by pouring the solvent thru this. (i.e. ether -> anhydrous ether).


Steam distillation- the general method used to extract essential oils from raw material. involves passing steam thru material.

Sulfuric acid- (H2SO4) a relitively strong acid. used in batteries (Battery acid at KMart/Walmart), and in some drain openers (Instant Power Drain Opener) (at about 36% conc?). can be distilled to yield relatively pure 90%+ conc.

Tetrahydrofuran- (C4H8O) used as a solvent. After twelve months storage, check for peroxide presence before distilling or evaporating.

THF- see tetrahydrofuran

Torr- a measurement of pressure. torr is equilivant to mmHg (millimeters of mercury).

Toulene- solvent.
Links: MSDS | Toulene to P2P.

3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzaldehyde- for production method (from vanillin) patent, see here (NOTE: mistitled article).

Urea- can be extracted from urine, bought as urea fertilizer from agricultural stores (impure) or bought from photographic chemical stores. used to make acetamide.

USP- United States Pharmaceuticals. another grade of chemcials...

Vanillin- commerical vanillin is manufactured from waste-paper pulp.
Links: Patent.

Wash- process by which to remove impurities by "washing" the substance with a particular solvent.

West Condenser- optimum for distillations.

X- see MDMA
definitions are derived from Concise Science Dictionary , third edition from Oxford University Press, ©1996

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