Acorus Calamus- plant from which arasones are extracted from.
Images: Lycaeum photos.
Acetic acid- regular white vineger is 5% acetic acid. glacial acetic acid WAS used in photography as "Stop Bath concentrate" (now Citric acid is used instead. maybe extracted from vinger. forms an azeotrope with water.
Links: recipe | MSDS".
Acetone- solvent available at hardware stores (good quality, $7/gallon in US). in UK, 99.5% acetone is available at request from pharmacies (100mL entitled "Care"). used in photography,
Acetylene- a gas... very explosive. must be kept wet to prevent combustion.
Acids- contains a -H group (hydrogen). acids are acids because they are aqueous solutions. Acids react with alcohols. Examples are hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, etc.
ACS- American Chemical Society. used to illustrate product meets the requirements of ACS.
Alcohol- contains an -OH group (hydroxide). alcohols are basic, and react with acids. Examples are sodium hydroxide, isopropyl alcohol, etc.
Alkaloid- a compound (containing nitrogen) derived from plants with pharmacological significance. Examples are caffine, quinine, morphine, etc...
Allyl group- (H2C=CHCH2--) also known as the propenyl group.
Allylbenzene- used as compressor fluid
Almond oil- oil from either bitter or sweet almonds. generally contains 95% benzaldehyde and 3% prussic acid (hydrogen cyanide). general prepartion for steam distillation involves pressing and macerating the nuts in warm water for 12-24 hrs. followed by steam distillation.
Amine- this is the -NH2 group. There are primary, terteriary, etc. amines. Examples of amines are ammonia, ephedrine, etc.
Ammonia- (NH3) Ammonia in it's natural state is a gas. THIS IS NOT THE SAME AS HOUSEHOLD CLEANING AMMONIA. Cleaning ammonia is an aqueous solution of ammonia. when storing anhydrous ammonia in cylinders, avoid brass fitting as ammonia tends to "eat" them; can be stored in butane bottles placed upside-down to balance out fill pressure. used in ice plants and in welding. Price quotes: 150lb cylinders/USD 100.
Links: MSDS (.pdf) | Recipe.
Ammonium acetate- can be produced by household ammonia and acetic acid.
Ammonium chloride- (sal ammoniac) sublimes. used in soldering, and in photography.
Ammonium hydroxide- available as household ammonia in 3-10% conc. or at hardware stores in "janitor's strength??" as 28%conc? may be bought at any place that services copiers that copy Blue Prints for $6.00/gal. (30% conc).
Ammonium nitrate- used in some fertilizers, and explosives. can be produced by the reaction of nitric acid and anhydrous ammonia.
Amphetamine- a scheduled substance.
Images: 2D. Links: Lycaeum.
Anise oil- the essensial oil of anise. there are different varieties of this oil depending on the species of plant that is was extracted from. primarily anise oil contains anethol among other chemicals. star anise oil is known to contain 20-30% safrole.
Anise oil extract- found at grocery stores. contains anise oil in an alcohol base.
Anhydrous- meaning without water or dehydrated. Example, anhydrous HCl is not a solution...
Benzaldehyde- main component in almond oil.
Benzene- (C6H8) a cyclic hydrocarbon with an intense odor.
Links: MSDS | Benzene to P2P.
Bromine- one of the halogens. Is a liquid in it's natural state. Very poisonous. Store in amber bottles in a cool dry place (light sensitive material).
Bromosafrole- brominated (halogenated) safrole
Calcium chloride- (CaCl2) Available many places as Damp-Rid. To dehydrate, place in oven on cookie sheet at 250 C for 3hrs.
Calcium hypochloride- available at pool cleaning supply stores
Calcium oxide- (CaO) aka QuickLime, Limestone (as used in landscaping). a fine grey powder. when added to water, exothermic reaction takes place. keep tightly sealed. used to dry EtOH. produced when Ca(OH)2 is heated to 1000 deg C with CaCO3.
Camphor oil- contains safrole, and eugenol. most commerical safrole is derived from this oil.
Links: Oil data.
Carboxylic acid- (-COOH) a weak acid.
Cassia oil- Cinnamomum cassia. contains 90% cinnamaldehyde.
Catalyst- a chemical that increases the rate of the reaction without participating in the reaction.
Cathinone- a precursor to methcathinone. found in the plant Catha edulis (Khat). a potent central nervous system stimulant. two enantiomers exist, where (ã)-cathinone is more potent than (+)-cathinone. S(ã)-cathinone is equivalent to S(+)-amphetamine.
Images: 2D | Catha plant.
Chloroform- pure chloroform decomposes when stored, especially when moisture or sunlight is present. decomposition gives rise to carbonyl chloride, and phosgene (poisonous gas). usually stored with alcohol to prevent decomposition (0.5 - 1% alcohol to anhydrous chloroform.) alcohol combines with phosgene can makes ethyl carbonate.
Cinnamaldehyde- can be made by mixing benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde, agitate with aqueous alkali (10%NaOH) at room temp and slow condensation cinnamaldehyde occurs.
Cinnamon Oil- Cinnamomum zeylanicum. oil from leaf contains 85-90% eugenol. Oil from bark contains 55-70% Cinnamic aldehyde, 4-9% eugenol. One price quotes: bark USD 350/kg, leaf USD 200/kg.
Cinnamon Oil, white- Canella alba.
Cyanogen Bromide- (CNBr) very dangerous, very poisionous. Do not attempt to handle without a fume hood!!!
Links: Eleusis' Synthesis | Zwit's Synthesis.
DCM- see dichloromethane
dH2O- distilled water
Dichloromethane- (DCM) solvent. can be obtained by firework suppliers or distilled from some paint thinners, or from plastics supply as solvent for acrylic plastics (pure source?). a recommended brand is Zip-Strip in a bee-like black & yellow can (also contains a little ethanol, methanol, and mineral spirits. can be distilled by adding more mineral spirits to dilute the gel). non-flamable, low-boiling point, denser than water. absolutely great for crystalizations, as our head bee states, "DCM is da BOMB as a solvent for crystallization. Really!"
Diethyl ether- can be dried with magnesium sulfate/calcium chloride to produce anhydrous diethyl ether. After twelve months storage, check for peroxide presence before distilling or evaporating.
Links: Recipe | Another Recipe.
Dimethyl sulfoxide- ((CH3)2SO) a solvent.
Diphosphorous Pentaoxide- (P2O5) used to dehydrate some solids and liquids via refluxing with it for several hrs. Some solvents might be incompatible with this drying agent.
Distillation- process of boiling a liquid, condensing the vapor and collecting it into a receiving flask. used for purification and seperation.
DMSO- see dimethyl sulfoxide
Drying agent- a substance used to dry solvents. see magnesium sulfate
Ecstacy- see MDMA
Ephedra- plant from which ephedrine and pseudoephedrine is extracted from.
Images: Ephedra nevadensis.
Links: Info | DOJ's Precursor Publication | Synthesis, Extaction, Esterification | Refs on Extraction and synthesis of.
Ephedrine- active constitutent in ephedra species of plants. known for it's energizing characteristic, and sold in health food stores in various forms. soulable in alcohol, chloroform, toulene, and other solvents. various salt forms. l-(S)-ephedrine is the naturally occuring isomer. d-(-) configuration potency, ED = .33mg/kg. l-(+) ED = .99mg/kg. fw of free base= 165.24.
Links: Synthesis | Electroreduction of | To Chloroephedrine | Birch Reduction of | see links under EPHEDRA (above).
Espom salts- see magnesium sulfate
Essential oils- oils extracted from plants (via distillation) that have strong odors. Usually used in perfume production. These oils usually contain aromatic compounds.
Ethanol- pure grain alcohol. can be dried with calcium oxide.
Images: 2D | RasMol | Chime.
Ether- see diethyl ether
Ethyl ether- see diethyl ether
Eugenol- precursor, and is the 95% constituent of clove oil, and 80-90% constituent of Cinnamomum Verum / C. Burmani leaves.
Links: MDMA Precursors from | Synthesis of Safrole from.
Fomaldehyde- (HCHO) aka embalming fluid, Formalin (37%), methanal. can be produced from the silver catalytic oxidation of methanol by air (500 deg C).
Formic acid- (HCOOH) a carboxylic acid occuring in ants (the "fire" in red ants), in the stinging hairs of certain insects, in the blood, urine, bile, persperation, and muscular fluid of man, in the stinging-nettle, and in the leaves trees in the pine family. It is used as a tanner in taxidermy, and as allpurpose descaler (sold in Britian at Boots under the name ATAKA at BP 1.75/125mL). It is produced in a number of reactions: by the oxidation of many organic substances: sugar, starch, gelatin, etc;... by the action of potash on chloroform. By the action of mineral acids in hydrocyanic acid; during the fermentation of diabetic urine, by the direct union of carbon monoxide and water, by the decomposition of oxalic acid under the influence of glycerin at about 100 deg. C. also known as methanoic acid. bp 100.8 C, forms formic acid-water azeotrope at 77.5% conc. with a bp of 107.3 C @ 760mm. azeotrope may be fractionally distilled under reduced pressure. Formic acid at dilute conc. can be dehydrated by boric anhydride or copper sulfate (see recipe link below). Price quotes: USD 14/qt, USD 40/gal.
Links: recipe | Preparation and Purification | MSDS.
Freilich Condenser- optimum for refluxing due to their large surface area.
Halogens- the name for a group of chemcials found on the periodic table that has strong ionic properties. The halogens are Flourine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, and Asantine. Because of the strong tendency to ionicly bond, halogens are only stable (and therefore found in nature) as diatomic molecules. (eg. Cl by itself will bind to another Cl, stablizing as Cl2)
Halogenation- a process by which a halogen is introduced into a substance.
Heptane- 65% of starter fluid, also present in Rubber Cement Thinner. used as a substitute of petroleum ether.
Hexamine- found in camping fuel, must be cleaned to use. can be crystallized from tablets by washing once with water, then wash once with large amounts of hot acetone. 4g esbit fuel tablets contain 2.5-3g Hexamine. as posted by Cherrie Baby:
Hexamine data. Aka HMTA, methenamine, hexamethylenetetramine, urotropine. Merck Index #6036. C6H12N4; MWt 140.19; white crystalline powder or granules, or colourless lustrous crystals; odourless; sp. Gr. 1.27 (25ƒ); sublimes at 263ƒ without melting [mp: 285-95ƒ] and with partial decomposition. Burns with a smokeless flame. Solubility: 1 g is soluble in 1.5 mL water, 12.5 mL alcohol, 10 mL chloroform; 320 mL ether; soluble in acetone (4g to 50mL) [but I have no precise data from CRC handbook]. pH of 0.2 molar aq. Soln. = 8.4.
and posted by Rhodium:
I boiled 15 grams of HMTA in 100ml acetone today and filtered hot. The mass was ~14g. Ok, not INSOLUBLE but not what I would call soluble either...
HgAc- mercuric acetate
hydrobromic acid- a light-sensitive acid (store in amber bottles). see hydrogen bromide
hydrochloric acid- (HCl) Relatively strong acid, used as a cleaning agent. Available in many different concentrations, either as percent of concentration or molality. Available as muriatic acid (25-33% conc.) from hardware stores and pool cleaning supply stores. can be distilled to produce a constant boiling solution of 35-38% concentration.
hydroiodic acid- (HI) this is a solid and can be made crudely by dumping phosphorous in water and adding iodine crystals. Other methods include the addition of KI in H3PO4, bubbling hydrogen sulfide into iodine water (90% yields), or reacting phosphorus with iodine solution. HI's fumes are potentially fatal.
hydrogen- a colorless, explosive gas produced in numerous ways including the electrolysis of salt water.
hydrogen bromide- (HBr) a colorless gas made by the direct addition of hydrogen and bromide using a platnium catalyst; or Tetralin and bromide as illustrated in Vogel's Practical Organic Chemistry. soluble in water to form hydrobromic acid.
Links: MSDS (.pdf).
hydrogen chloride- (HCl) gas; can be made by dripping hydrochloric acid onto anhydrous magnesium sulfate.
Links: MSDS (.pdf).
hydrogen cyanide- (HCN) prussic acid. found in imported lima beans (0.01%). extremely harzardous material!!! from Merck: colorless, characteristic odor. Exposure to 150 ppm for .5 to 1 hr. may endanger life. Death may result from a few min exposure to 300ppm. Antidote: sodium nitrate or sodium thiosulphate.
hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2) available in many different concentrations. highly concentrated peroxide will react very violently to any organic matter and can cause serious explosions. available at local pharmacies, hydroponic suppliers (30%), health food stores (30%), pool cleaner suppliers (as Baquashock, 27% conc), distilled water suppliers; used in sewage disinfectant. Incompatible with copper, chromium, iron, most metals or their salts, flammable liquid, combustible materials, aniline, nitromethane.
Links: 3% MSDS | 30% MSDS.
hydrogen sulfide- made by dripping HCl onto Iron Sulfide. Incompatible with nitric acid, oxidizing gases.
iodine- (I2) used in photography, and water purifaction. tintures of iodine contain 2% iodine in alcohol base. crystalline iodine is cheap.
in situ- in place
in vitro-- in test tube
in vivo- in an organism
Iron Out- see sodium bisulfite
isomers- these are compounds having the same molecular formula but having different arrangements usually having different physical and chemical properties.
isopropyl alcohol- (IPA) available everywhere in dilute concentrations. salt out dilution and distill to obtain anhydrous IPA.
Isosafrole- an isomer of safrole found in star anise oil. Infinite shelf-life.
Ketone- any organic containing a carbonyl group bonded to 2 hydrocarbon groups.
Lab grade- less pure than reagent grade
Lye- see sodium hydroxide
M- see molar
Magnesium sulfate- (MgSO4) also known as Espom Salts. used as a drying agent for solvents (esp. organic, and/or alcohols). can be dried to produced anhydrous magnesium sulfate. To reuse, rinse with solvent, then dry in an oven at 150 C for 20 minutes.
MeNH2- see Methylamine
Mercuric chloride- (HgCl2) available from photographic chemical stores as intensifiers. used in alternative photographic processes.
Links: MSDS- HgCl2.
Methylamine- (CH3NH2) strong order which may be removed with Lava soap or a lemon juice & baking soda shower. This is a gas, the hydrochloric salt (made by bubbling gas in HCl) is a solid and storable form.
Links: Rhodium's Synthesis | Eleusis' Synthesis | Zwit's Synthesis.
MDA- 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine. a scheduled substance. empathogenic.
Images: 2D | 3D.
MDMA- (Ecstacy) 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetmine. a scheduled substance. derived from MDA. empathogenic.
Images: 2D | 3D | RasMol | Chime.
Links: Lycaeum | Psychedelic Abstracts.
MDP2P- 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone. light yellow oil, slightly more viscous than water, and smells good. refridgerate for long-term storage.
MDP2Pol- 3-4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-proanol. water-white color and a safrolish smell with a hint of alcohol.
Methamphetamine- a scheduled substance. CNS stimulant. soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and water.
Links: Lycaeum | Psychedelic Abstracts.
Methanol- (CH3OH) also known as methyl alcohol and wood alcohol. sold as windshield washer fluid/antifreeze, alcohol stove fuel, shellac paint thinners, and used in model race car fuel.
Methcathinone- a scheduled substance. Twice as potent as cathinone.
Links: FAQ v2.2 | FAQ Critique | Synthesis Notes | Hyperreal's Synthesis | Jones Reagent Synthesis | PPA Synthesis | Zwit's Synthesis.
Methylamine- (CH3NH2) mp 227 deg. the hydrochloride salt forms long white crystals. IS poisonous, esp. free base gas... maximum exposure is assayed at 110ppm per 8 hrs.
Methylene chloride- see dichloromethane.
Molality- (m) a term used to denote the concentration of solvent. 1 m = moles / kilogram of solvent.
Molar- (M) a term used to denote the concentration of a solution. 1 M =moles/liter of total solution.
Mole- (mol) the standardized unit of a substance. is is equal to the molecular wieght, or wieght of the comprise atoms.
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