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BRIGHTMAN, ROBERT A; MEYER, DAVID; MARANO, LOU
On Windigo Psychosis
Current Anthropology; 1983, 24, 1, Feb, 120-121.
Comments are offered on Lou Marano's discussion of the windigo literature (see SA 32:5/84O2852). Robert A. Brightman (University of Wisconsin, Madison) finds excessively categorical Marano's claim that the cannibalism ascribed to windigos is solely an ideological rationalization for homicide, given records of cannibalism among Northern Algonkians. David Meyer (Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon) finds valuable Marano's debunking of the windigo psychosis concept, but calls for attention to variation in windigo beliefs among varied cultures. In Reply, Lou Marano (Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa) questions the validity of Brightman's evidence for the actual occurrence of windigo behavior & examines some additional evidence on windigo beliefs. Both emic & etic analyses appear to be needed.

CARRANZA ACEVEDO, JOSE
Behavioral changes induced by the chronic administration of amphetamines.
Foreign Psychiatry; 1973 Fal Vol. 2(3) 42-47
Randomly divided male CFW Swiss strain mice into 4 groups of 10 Ss each. Dextroamphetamine was administered for 35 days to Groups 1 and 2 in intraperitoneal doses of 5 and 8 mg/kg daily, respectively, and to Group 3 orally in a daily dose of 1 mg/kg. Group 4 acted as a control. Abnormal behaviors observed in Groups 1 and 2 consisted of social disorganization, self-inflicted lesions, hallucinatory behavior, cannibalism, and autism. Group 3 demonstrated hyperactivity and cannibalism. It is suggested that the model of behavioral abnormality produced by dextroamphetamine is indistinguishable from paranoid schizophrenia in humans and will better serve in analyzing psychotic syndromes than the psychoses produced by LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin.

DORNSTREICH, MARK D; MORREN, GEORGE E B
Does New Guinea Cannibalism Have Nutritional Value?
Human Ecology; 1974, 2, 1, Jan, 1-12.
Any attempt to establish the material value of cannibalism in tropical nutrition must be empirical, & placed within a context of local human ecology & a subsistence patterns. An attempt is made to consider (1) how some aspects of a generalized ecological approach to the study of subsistence patterns can be related to cannibalism, (2) suggestions as to what quantitative considerations the practice of cannibalism involves, as well as what kind of ecological data is necessary to research this question from an empirical point of view, & (3) to refer to several accounts of cannibalism as it occurs in New Guinea, & to outline the conclusion that the nutritional benefits or significance of the practice of cannibalism has to be viewed against the background of the behavior of these aborigines. The practice of cannibalism becomes interesting when one considers its historical persistence, its frequent occurrence & its labeling--by anthropologists--as a manifestation of bizarre behavior. The question of nutritional value of cannibalism is examined; this cannot properly be determined except in the context of the total subsistence economy & local human ecology. A format for the empirical investigation of food-getting & new ethnographic information about New Guinea cannibalism is presented. It is determined that this practice does have nutritional value for tropical peoples living at low-medium population densities & exploiting a diverse range of animal foods.

FORSYTH, DONALD W
The Beginnings of Brazilian Anthropology: Jesuits and Tupinamba Cannibalism
Journal of Anthropological Research; 1983, 39, 2, summer, 147-178.
Jesuit missionaries who lived & worked among the Tupian-speaking Indians of sixteenth-century costal Brazil have provided valuable information on the customs & practices of these Indians. The contributions to Brazilian ethnography of such Jesuits as Nobrega, Anchieta, Cardim, Soares, & others is illustrated by translations from their writings, most of which are unavailable in English. In particular, William Arens's thesis (The Man-Eating Myth: Anthropology and Anthropophagy, New York: Oxford University Press, 1979) that Brazilian Indians really did not practice cannibalism as reported by French & German sources is reexamined. The Jesuit sources strongly support the argument that anthropophagy was an integral part of Tupian cultural practice.

MCLAREN, CAROL SHEEHAN
Moment of Death: Gift of Life-A Reinterpretation of the Northwest Coast Image 'Hawk'
Anthropologica; 1978, 20, 1-2, 65-90.
Studies of Northwest Coast Indian cultures can draw on two important anthropological traditions, those of Boas & Levi-Strauss, whose major strengths are, respectively, fieldwork & structural logic. Boas's studies of Northwest Coast art rest on an inadequate model of meaning in which each design is given a single noun as a name, rather than having its full range of implied activity understood. The image 'Hawk' identified by Boas is an anomaly, in that the image is used virtually everywhere while the hawk is not an important mythological creature, & in that the portrayal is not like the hawk in key traits, such as having both a beak & a mouth. A major mythic entity for the Kwagiu, however, is the salmon, which is their major food source & source of wealth, symbolically linked with copper & with abalones. The visual image taken as 'Hawk' can be taken, on the basis of its actual visual characteristics, as that of a salmon. The total system of concepts clustering around it includes images of wealth, supernatural power, & reincarnation. Reincarnation is linked with cannibalism, & the salmon is seen as devouring itself, & as giving itself for human consumption & thus being a source of wealth. The image thus makes thinkable the transformation of life & wealth into poverty & death.

REID, SUSAN
The Kwakiutl Man Eater
Anthropologica; 1979, 21, 2, 247-275.
The comparative analysis method is used to supplement R. Ridington's analysis of Beaver cannibalism. The comparison relied upon is from Kwakiutl sources. Mythological animals who engage in man-eating, as described in Kawkiutl traditions are considered. The cultural factor which, among both the Beaver & the Kwakiutl, encourages cannibalistic behavior & helps them to avoid psychosis is their treatment of social space. Both peoples believe that an adult must have some distance from society, which he expresses in symbolic behavior. That behavior includes imitating animal spirits that have given him power; the scope which the culture gives to this imitation includes cannibalistic behavior. HA Tr & Modified by S. Karganovic

TURNER, D H
Windigo Mythology and the Analysis of Cree Social Structure
Anthropologica; 1977, 19, 1, 63-73.
When studied from a structuralist standpoint, certain Cree 'cannibalistic' myths reveal aspects of traditional social organization. Analysis here is based on data collected recently among the Cree of northern Manitoba. Analysis of the myths appears to be a breakthrough in unlocking the Cree mythological code & illustrates that the Cree system functions by way of incorporation. It has been formed by the tension among potentially autonomous groups on increasingly higher organizational levels. In the Windigo myth, which is analyzed here, cannibalism symbolizes the the incorporation into a social grouping & the various acts & relations described in the story mediate opposed tendencies toward autonomy at the domestic, brotherhood, & band levels. The myth here describes how Windigo's son killed & ate his wife. Content analysis illustrates that the Windigo syndrome is not explicable in terms of sociobiological & psychological paradigms. Rather, it seems that the myth functions to 'define the concept of human personness for the Northeast Algonkians.' There is a dominant Cree concern with questions of social, economic, & environmental extremes (eg, pulls toward & away from the domestic group; summer storm & winter freeze). The myths are 'experimental' reflections on those social relationships. HA Tr & Modified by S. Karganovic


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